Byzantine emperor; born in 1113; assassinated at Constantinople in 1185; reigned in 1183-85. He wrote a book against the Jews and their religion, with the object of converting them to Christianity.
- Le Beau, Histoire du Bas-Empire, book iv. ch. 22-25;
- Hertzberg, Gesch. des Byzantinischen und Osmanischen Reiches, pp. 318-328.