King of Syria from 125 to 113 and from 111 to 96 B.C. Born in the year 141; died 96 B.C. For the first three years of his reign he was actively opposed by Alexander Zabinas, his rival for the throne. Of necessity, therefore, he lived on terms of amity with the Jews, who in a measure possessed the balance of power. After the defeat of Alexander Zabinas, he enjoyed eight years of undisturbed possession of the government and continued in his attitude of friendship toward the Jewish people, for he did not yet feel himself sufficiently strong to insist upon the terms of the treaty made by Antiochus Sidetes; nor was he any better able to do so in the years 113-96; for although he managed to wrest a part of Syria from his opponent Antiochus IX., the portion of the country which bordered on Palestine was not included.
- Flathe, Gesch. Makedoniens, ii. 672;
- Ewald,History, v. 364;
- Kuhn, Beiträge zur Gesch. der Seleukiden, pp. 14 et seq.;
- Schürer, Gesch. i. 209 et seq.;
- Wellhausen, I. J. G. 2d ed., pp. 260-262;
- Willrich, Judaica, index.