City in the district of Mosbach, Baden. At Landa and the neighboring Tauber-Bischofsheim seven prominent Jews were tortured and burned, Jan. 1 and 2, 1235, on the accusation of having murdered a Christian. Nearly the whole community was annihilated by the hordes under Rindfleisch July 24, 1298, and again by those under Armleder's leadership June 10, 1337. Another persecution took place in 1343; and on the appearance of the Black Death in 1348 many Jews were martyred. Jacob of Bischofsheim, with his wife and son, is mentioned at Nuremberg in 1329. In 1336 the brothers Johann and Eberhard Voyte ratified an agreement that of the yearly tax on the Jews of Bischofsheim one-half should thence-forth go to Otto, bishop of Würzburg, and the other half to themselves until the chapter should have bought back the city from them. On Dec. 23 of the same year they agreed to turn over their share to the town council. In 1338 Archbishop Heinrich of Mayence released the knight Johann von Rieden and his family from all the claims of the Jews of Bischofsheim on account of the Jews that had been slain in that city. In 1343 Archbishop Adolf of Mayence promised to cease taxing the Jews in the nine cities of the archbishopric to which Bischofsheim belonged. On June 27, 1400, the burgrave Friedrich addressed a letter to Isaac of Bischofsheim. In 1710 the houses of two Jews, near the church, were exchanged for others. In 1731 and 1746 the electoral government issued decrees forbidding the desecration of Sundays and holidays by Jews. The poll-tax of the Jews amounted to 20 kreutzer in 1724. From early times the city belonged to the electorate of Mayence, and the Jews were included in the rabbinate of Aschaffenburg, or Mayence; representatives of Bischofsheim are mentioned in all transactions of the electorate. When Baden became independent Bischofsheim came under the rabbinical jurisdiction of Wertheim. The first and the last rabbi of Bischofsheim-on-the-Tauber was Jacob Löwenstein (1851-69); while his learned son, Leopold Löwenstein, rabbi at Morbach, had charge of the rabbinate in 1870-71. At present (1902) the community numbers 40 families, and is included in the rabbinate of Morbach.
Jacob ben Eliezer Brandeis, who died in 1768, is mentioned as rabbi of Neckar-Bischofsheim. A Rabbi Hellmann, of the family of Chief Rabbi Löb of Prague, was the author of a commentary on the Shulḥan 'Aruk, Eben ha-'Ezer. He died at an early age, and was succeeded by Rabbi Moses Bamberger, who died in old age in 1820. The latter's only son, Koppel Bamberger, rabbi of Worms, died in 1864. The Jew Joseph, baptized in 1705, was a native of this place.
Jews are also mentioned as living at Rhein-Bischofsheim.
- Salfeld, Martyrologium, pp. 124, 209, 238, 281;
- Menken, Scriptores Rerum Germanicarum, iii. 338;
- Salfeld and Stern, Nürnberg im Mittelalter, p. 210;
- Wiener, Regesten, p. 119, No. 126, p. 119, No. 127, p. 121, No. 137;
- Zeit. für Gesch. der Juden in Deutschland, iii. 325, v. 190;
- Bamberger, Juden in Aschaffenburg, 1900, p. 3;
- Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. No. 9139.
- For Neckar-Bischofsheim, see Wibel, Hohenlohische Kirchenhistorie, p. 757;
- Löwenstein, Gesch. der Juden in der Kurpfalz, p. 273.