Russian author; born in 1864. From 1889 until 1892 he was reviewer of literature on Russian history for the "Jahresbericht der Geschichtswissenschaft" and the "Istoricheskoye Obozrenie," published by the University of St. Petersburg; he translated sources for Russian history, as Grevenbruch's "Tragoedia Moscovitica," 1606 (history of the false Dmitri); and Neuville's "Relation Curieuse," 1689 (history of the riot of the Stryeltzy). He wrote a number of articles in "Russki Bibliograficheski Slovar," published by the Historical Society of the University of St. Petersburg, and a series of reviews in the "Zhurnal Ministerstva Narodnavo Prosvyeshcheniya." In the "Voskhod" for 1896 there appeared his reviews of the works of Bershadski on the history of the Jews. While secretary of the Society for the Promotion of Education Among the Jews of Russia, he succeeded in directing the activity of that organization toward the encouragement and development of elementary education among the Jews. At present he is a member of the advisory board of the Jewish Colonization Association.