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BROOCH or BUCKLE:

A term which occurs in I. Mace. x. 89, xi. 58, xiv. 44, as the translation of the Greek πόρπη; Latin, fibula. This was a ring made of metal (often gold) and set with precious stones, through which passed a pin. It was used, in the manner of the modern safety-pin, to fasten the overgarment to the shoulder. By the Romans brooches were often given as presents; and in the army they were bestowed as marks of distinction or rewards for meritorious service, like modern orders and decorations. When of gold, they resembled the epaulets now worn by the higher military officers. From the passages quoted above it is evident that in the East kings or high dignitaries (priests) were exclusively the recipients; something of the ancient Taboo apparently surviving in this restricted use. In Ex. xxxv. 22, R. V., "brooch" is the rendering of the Hebrew , which, however, was a nose-ring (see Bridle; compare II Kings xix. 28).

E. G. H.
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