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CALENDAR (Hebrew, "Luaḥ" = table):

A systematic arrangement of the days of the year. The Jewish calendar reckons the days from evening to evening, in accordance with the order observed in the Biblical account of the Creation, "And there was evening and there was morning, one day" (Gen. i. 5). This principle is repeated in the Pentateuch several times (Ex. xii. 18; Lev. xxiii. 32). With nightfall the day, the period of twenty-four hours, ends, and a new one commences. The day, in this sense of the word, consists of two periods, that of light and that of darkness: the former is called "day"; the latter, "night." So that the term "day" is used in a double sense: (1) as the period of twenty-four hours, and (2) as daytime. Which of the two meanings the word carries in any particular passage of the Bible can easily be gathered from the context or from parallel passages (compare Bab. Suk. 43a).

Day and Night.

The transition from day to night, from light to darkness, and vice versa, is gradual: in the one case it begins before sunset, and continues till after sunset; in the other, it begins before sunrise and continues till after sunrise. The two periods of transition are of undefined length, and are called, in Hebrew, "'ereb" and "boḳer" ("evening" and "morning" compare Ruth iii. 14; Deut. xxiii. 11; Num. ix. 15). The period of transition is also called "neshef" ("dawn" and "twilight"; Prov. vii. 9; I Sam. xxx. 17; compare Berakot 3b) and "dimdume ḥammah" (redness of the sun, Yer. Berakot iv. 1; Bab. ib. 9; and Rashi, ad loc.).

Nightfall, as the border-line between two consecutive days, is the moment when three stars of the second magnitude become visible ("ẓet ha-kokabim"); and the length of a day as opposed to night is, according to Neh. iv. 21, "from the rising of the morning" ("'alot ha-shaḥar" or "'alot 'ammud ha-shaḥar") "till the stars appear" ("ẓet ha-kokabim"; Berakot 2b). The short time before the actual appearance of the stars is regarded as a doubtful period, neither day nor night, and is called in rabbinic literature "ben ha-shemashot" (between the two suns), a euphemism for "bene ramshaya" (between the evenings; compare Mishnah Pesaḥim i. 1). The duration of the "ben ha-shemashot" is fixed by the Rabbis (Ṭur Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 261) to be thirteen minutes, thirty seconds before night.

Beginning of Night.

An important element in the modern Jewish calendar is the announcement of ẓet ha-kokabim on Sabbaths, festivals, and fasts. The time that elapses between sunset and the appearance of stars varies from day to day and from place to place. It is determined by frequent observation, or by calculation. In the latter case, as well as in the former, the results found must be considered as the average time of ẓet ha-kokabim, which does not in each individual case agree with the result of direct observation. It may be assumed that, under average conditions of the atmosphere, three stars of the second magnitude become visible in the evening when the sun is seven degrees below the horizon. The calculation is based on the following three equations: (1) . (2) cos H = tan D tan L. (3) . [H = time in degrees from noon to sunset; D = declination of the sun; Φ = an auxiliary angle; x = time between sunset and the moment when the sun reaches 7 degrees below the horizon.] In higher latitudes where during the summer the sun does not sink below the horizon, and during the winter does not rise above it, the days are counted in summer from midday, i.e., from one upper crossing of the meridian by the sun to the next crossing; in the winter, from midnight to midnight, i.e., from one lower crossing of the meridian by the sun to the next.

In places of the same latitude the time of ẓet ha-kokabim varies according to their longitude. Like any other point of time, it travels at the rate of one degree in four minutes from meridian to meridian, along any of the parallel circles, and arrives again at the starting-point in twenty-four hours. The question now arises, which is to be considered the first meridian. At which point of the circle do the twenty-four hours begin? The problem has been discussed by R. Judah ha-Levi in his "Cuzari" (ii. 11), and although he seems inclined to take the meridian of Sinai or of Jerusalem as the first, the meridian 90 degrees east of Jerusalem was accepted as the starting-point.

Duration of Day.

The day is divided into twenty-four equal hours, beginning at 6 P.M. (In Pirḳe R. El. the "large hour," equal to two ordinary hours, is mentioned.)This division affects only the calculation of the "molad" and "teḳufah" (beginning of a month and of the four seasons of the year). In other respects daytime is divided into twelve hours, which vary according to the length of daytime. Whether the night in Talmudic times was likewise divided into twelve hours, is not certain. While in daytime the parts could easily be determined by the sun-dial, it became difficult after nightfall. Both in Biblical and Talmudical literature mention is made of a division of the night into three or four (Berakot 3a) watches ("ashmorah" or "mishmarah"; compare "the morning watch" [Ex. xiv. 24], "the middle watch" [Judges vii. 19], "the beginning of the watches" [Lam. ii. 19]).

The hour is divided into 1,080 parts ("ḥalaḳim"). In the Yer. (Berakot. i. 1) the following division is given: A day has twenty-four hours; one hour has twenty-four "'onot"; the "'onah" has twenty-four "'ittot"; one "'et" has twenty-four "rega'im." In the calculation of the molad only ḥalaḳim are employed. Both the hour and the parts (ḥalaḳim) are treated as constant; a day on the equator, which is equally divided between day and night—the night lasting from 6 P.M. to 6 A.M., and the day from 6 A.M. to 6 P.M.—being taken as the basis of the calculation.

The Week.

The week consists of seven days, distinguished from one another by their place in the week. They are called the first day, the second day, the third day, and so on to the seventh day, which is besides called "Shabbat" (Rest) or "Yom ha-Shabbat" (Day of Rest). As the Sabbath is the most important day of the week, the term "Shabbat" denotes also "week"—that is, the period from one Sabbath to the next; and a year of rest is also called "Shabbat" (or "shabu'a"). Friday, as the forerunner of Shabbat, is called "'Ereb Shabbat" (The Eve of Sabbath). The term "'ereb" admits of two meanings: "evening" and "admixture" (Ex. xii. 38); and "'Ereb Shabbat" accordingly denotes the day on the evening of which Sabbath begins, or the day on which food is prepared for both the current and the following days, which latter is Sabbath.

The idea of preparation is expressed by the Greek name παρασκευή, given by Josephus ("Ant." xvi. 6, § 2) to that day (compare Mark xv. 42; Luke xxiii. 54; Matt. xxvii. 62; John xix. 42). In Yer. Pesaḥim iv. 1 the day is called "Yoma da-'Arubta" (Day of Preparation). Another term frequently employed in describing the day is the Aramaic "me'ale" (bringing in, that is, the Sabbath). Saturday evening—i.e., the evening after the termination of Sabbath—is correspondingly called "Moẓa'e Shabbat" in Hebrew and "Appuḳe Yoma" in Aramaic ("leading the day out"). The name, originally given to Saturday evening, is also applied to denote the whole of "Sunday." Similarly, the sixth year, or the year preceding the Sabbatical year, and the eighth year, or the year following the Sabbatical year, are respectively called "'Ereb Shebi'it" and "Moẓa'e Shebi'it."

Name of Sabbaths.

The same terms are also applied to the days preceding and following any of the festivals; as "'Ereb Pesaḥ," "'Ereb Sukkot," etc. The weekly Sabbaths are distinguished from one another by the lesson from the Pentateuch or by that from the Prophets, read on Sabbath. "Shabbat Bereshit," for instance, is the name of the first Sabbath after the autumn holy days, or the first Sabbath after Simḥat Torah, because on that Sabbath the section, or parashah, that begins "Bereshit" (Gen. i. 1) is read; and, similarly, the second Sabbath is called "Shabbat Noaḥ," because the parashah beginning "Eleh Toledot Noaḥ" is read on that day. Again, "Shabbat Naḥamu" is the Sabbath after the fast of Ab, when Isa. xl., beginning "Naḥamu" (Comfort ye), is read; and "Shabbat Shubah" is the Sabbath between New-Year's Day and the Day of Atonement, when Hos. xiv., beginning "Shubah" (Return), is read. The names are based on the custom followed at present in all Orthodox congregations, prescribing the reading of the whole of the Pentateuch in the synagogue once every year. In the synagogues where the cycle of three years is adopted, these names do not apply. See Sidra.

A difficulty with regard to the Sabbath is experienced by those who are traveling round the world. Journeying westward, they find the day longer than 24 hours; traveling eastward, they find the day shorter than 24 hours. When the starting-point is again reached, the former find that the a days of their counting are a-1 ordinary days of 24 hours; while those who travel in an eastward direction find their a days equal to a+1 ordinary days of 24 hours. Suppose the traveler in a westerly direction completes his journey on Friday evening according to his reckoning, he finds that at his starting-place it is not Friday but Saturday evening; and the traveler in the opposite direction, if he completes his journey on Saturday evening, according to his account finds that the day was counted in that place as Friday and not as Saturday. In the first case, therefore, the traveler has kept one Sabbath less than his brethren at home; in the second case, one Sabbath more.

The Month.

The moon passes through her different phases in 29 days, 12 hours, 793 parts (ḥalaḳim) of an hour. These phases serve as a measure of time (compare Ps. civ. 19); and the period covered by them is known as one lunar month. For practical purposes, however, the months are reckoned by full days and set in with the beginning of night. They contain either 29 or 30 days; in the first case the month is "ḥaser" (deficient) by half a day; in the second, "male") over-full) by half a day. The first appearance of the new moon determines the beginning of the month. At first a small and faint arc, like a sickle, can be seen by those endowed with good sight, from spots favorable for such an observation. It may, therefore, happen that in different places the reappearance of the moon is noticed on different days. In order to prevent possible confusion to the central religious authority, the chief of the Sanhedrin, in conjunction with at least two colleagues, was entrusted with the determination of New-Moon Day for the whole nation. See Calendar, History of.

Although the Jewish calendar was thus regulatedby direct observation, the members of the court seem to have been in possession of a recognized system, called "Sod ha-'Ibbur"—("'Ibbur" is the intercalation of a day in a month, making it thirty days, and of a month in a year. The principal object of the calendar was to regulate these two points)—which enabled them to test the accuracy of the evidence of the eye-witnesses, and which was probably resorted to on exceptional occasions (R. H. 20). There were times of persecution when the president and the Sanhedrin could not exercise their authority; times of trouble and war when neither witnesses nor messengers could travel in safety. On such occasions calculation had to be relied upon. The substitution of calculation for observation became gradually permanent, helping to maintain the religious unity of the nation, and insuring the uniform celebration of "the seasons of the Lord," independently of the vicissitudes of the times, as well as of the distance of Jewish settlements from Palestine. A permanent calendar, still in force, was introduced by Hillel II., nasi of the Sanhedrin about 360. It is uncertain what the calendar of Hillel originally contained, and when it was generally adopted. In the Talmud there is no trace of it.

Originally, the Hebrews employed numerals to distinguish one month from the other. The month in which the spring season ("Abib") commenced was the first month (Ex. xii. 2; Deut. xvi. 1), the other months being accordingly called the second, third, etc. A few traces of names of months are met with in the earlier books of the Bible: Abib, the first month (Ex. l.c.); Ziw, the second month (I Kings vi. 1); Etanim, the seventh month (ib. viii. 2); and Bul, the eighth month (I Kings vi. 38). In post-exilic books Babylonian names are employed; viz., Nisan, Iyyar, Siwan, Tammuz, Ab, Elul, Tishri, Ḥeshwan, Kislew, Ṭebet, Shebaṭ, Adar, and We-Adar.

The Year.

Although the Hebrews reckoned by lunar months, it was provided that the first month should be in the spring (Ex. xii. 2, xiii. 4; Deut. xvi. 1). As the lunar year consists of twelve months, or 354 days, 8 hours, 876 parts, it is shorter, by 10 days, 21 hours, 204 parts, than the solar year, and every two or three years the difference is equalized by the addition of a month, following the twelfth month. The year is then called a leap-year, and consists of 383 days, 21 hours, 589 parts. Various methods were suggested for the equalization of the solar and lunar years (see 'Ar. 8b et seq.; Pirḳe R. El. vii.; and Baraita of Samuel), but the cycle of Meton, or the Maḥzor of the calendar of Hillel, prevailed. At first it was in the hands of the Sanhedrin to decide annually whether the year was to be a common year or a leap-year; and the decision was based on direct observation as to the signs of spring. In course of time, calculation was in this case also substituted for observation; and the sequence of common years and leap-years was permanently fixed.

The fact that the civil year included only complete days, as well as some other consideration, set forth below in the principles of the Jewish calendar, caused variations in the number of days, both in the common year and in the leap-year.

The following are the principles regulating the Jewish calendar: (1) The length of the astronomical lunar month is 29 days, 12 hours, 793 parts. (2) A synodical month has 29 or 30 days, and is accordingly "ḥaser" (defective), or "male" (full). (3) The first of Tishri is the day on which the "molad" (conjunction) of Tishri has taken place, except: (a) When the molad is at noon or later ("Molad Zaḳen"). (b) When the molad is on a Sunday, Wednesday, or Friday ("Adu" = ). (c) When the molad in a common year is on Tuesday, 204 parts after 3 A.M ("Gaṭrad" = ). (d) When the molad is on Monday, 589 parts after 9 A.M., in a year succeeding a leap-year ("Beṭutaḳpaṭ" = ). The exceptions ("deḥiyyot" = postponements) were introduced to provide that the Day of Atonement should not be on Sunday or Friday ('Ar. l.c. p. 20), and that the seventh day of Tabernacles should not be on Saturday. Maimonides ("Yad," Ḳiddush ha-Ḥodesh, v. 7) attempts to explain these exceptions astronomically. The exception of Molad Zaḳen provided that the first of Tishri should at least include six hours of the new astronomical month, in accordance with R. H. 20: "if the molad takes place before noon, the moon can be seen the same day near sunset"; and that same day was declared to be the first of Tishri. There was at least the possibility of experts discovering the small sickle of the moon six hours after the conjunction; and this possibility justified the authors of the calendar in fixing the day of the molad as the first of the new month, if the molad took place before noon.

An unsuccessful attempt was made by a certain Ben Meïr (923) to substitute 12 hours, 642 parts for "noon" (compare A. Harkavy, "Zikron La'aḥaronim," and M. Friedlander, in "Jew. Quart. Rev." v. 196 et seq.).

Principles of the Calendar.

(4) The molad of Tishri of the first year was on Sunday, 204 parts after 11 P.M. (5) A common year, consisting of twelve months, has 353, 354, or 355 days; a leap-year, consisting of thirteen months, has 383, 384, or 385 days. The effect of these variations is the variation in the length of the months of Ḥeshwan and Kislew, which have 29 and 30 days, 30 and 30 days, or 29 and 29 days; the years are accordingly called "kesidrah" (regular), "shelemah" (perfect), or "ḥaserah" (defective), and marked by the Hebrew letters ב, ש, and ח. These variations for the common year and for the leap-year, together with the changes as regards the day of the week on which the first of Tishri falls, are; and for the common year, and and for the leap-year; the letters כ, נ, ה, ז, denoting Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday.

(6) In the cycle ("maḥzor") of nineteen years the third, sixth, eighth, eleventh, fourteenth, seventeenth, and nineteenth are leap-years; the rest are common years. Nineteen lunar years with seven extra months equal nineteen solar years minus one hour, four hundred and eighty-five parts. Some count the seven leap-years of the cycle differently, because they begin the first year of the first cycle differently. The solar year in the Jewish calendar, according to Samuel of Nehardea, is the same as theJulian year. According to R. Ada, the son of Ahabah (date unknown), it is 12 7/19 lunar months = 365 days, 5 hours, 997 12/19 parts (see Maimonides, "Hil. Ḳiddush ha-Ḥodesh, ix., x.). The year is divided into four equal seasons; and the beginning of a season is called in Hebrew "teḳufah." One teḳufah is distant from the next 91 days, 7½ hours, according to Samuel, whose theory has been adopted for ritual purposes.

As the Christian calendar is based on the solar year, and the Jewish calendar has only years of twelve or thirteen lunar months, the problem arises how to find for a given Jewish date the corresponding Christian date. The solution is as follows:

Given: Sept. 24, 3 A.M., the first teḳufah of Tishri, being 12 days, 20 hours, 204 parts before the first molad of Tishri. What is the Christian date of the molad of Tishri 5661 (1901)?

Solution: 5660 = 297 cycles (of 19 years) and 17 years. The excess of 1 solar year over 1 lunar year = 10 days, 21 hours, 204 parts; of 19 solar years over 1 cycle = 1 hour, 485 parts.

In 297 cycles the excess = 17 days, 22 hours, 405 parts; in 17 years the excess = 17 days, 19 hours, 870 parts.

Deduct 12 days, 20 hours, 204 parts from the sum, and 12 days, 21 hours, 1071 parts remain as the excess of 5660 solar years over 5660 lunar years; i.e., the molad Tishri of 5661 is 12 days, 21 hours, 1071 parts before Sept. 24, 3 A.M. = Sept. 11, ½ min. after 5 A.M. (old style), or Sept. 24, 5 hours, ½ min. (new style).

The date of the first of Tishri is not necessarily that of the molad Tishri. According to rule 3, it depends on the day of the week on which the molad takes place, whether the first of Tishri is the day of the molad, or one or two days later. In order to find the day of the week for the molad Tishri, proceed in the above example as follows:

The first molad Tishri was 2 days, 5 hours, 204 parts. The excess over complete weeks is in a common year 4 days, 8 hours, 876 parts; in a leap-year, 5 days, 21 hours, 589 parts: in a cycle of 19 years, 2 days, 16 hours, 595 parts; in 297 cycles, 11 common years, and 6 leap-years, it amounts to 0 days, 5 hours, 885 parts; added to the initial 2 days, 5 hours, 204 parts, the total is 2 days, 11 hours, 9 parts; i.e. the molad Tishri 5561 is on Monday, ½ min. after 5 A.M., and the first of Tishri is on the same day, Monday, Sept. 24.

Gauss ("Monatliche Correspondenz von Freih. v. Zach," v. 435) gives the following formula for finding the Christian date for the fifteenth of Nisan of the year A A.M.:

12 A + 17 = 19 D + a; A = 4 E + b; M is an integral and m is a fraction; M + m = 32.0440932 + 1.5542418 a + 0.25 b - 0.003177794 A. Explanation of the equation: Let M, m, a, b, c, have the same signification as above, T = initial date of Nisan 1 (the day of the molad) of the year 1 A.M. with the hours and ḥalakim of the molad Tishri of the year 2 (i.e. March 33, 583); . Then M + m = T - (A - 1) 7 K - (A - 1) L + (6 - 1) 0.25 = T - (A - 1) (19 - 12) K - etc. = T + K (12 A - 12) - etc. = T + K (12 A - 2) - 10K - etc. = T + K (12 A + 17) - 10 K - etc. = T - 10 K + K (12 A + 17) - AL + L + 0.25 b - 0.25. T - 10 K + L + 14 = 32.0440932; and - 0.25 is disregarded in order to increase the value of M by 6 hours and thus to exclude Molad Zaḳen; and addition or subtraction of a multiple of 19 does not alter the result.

Further, M + 3 A + 5 b + 5 = 7 F + c. If c = 2, 4, or 6, the fifteenth of Nisan is on the (M + 1)th day of March; if c = 1, a > 6, m 0.63287037, - on the (M + 2)th of March, and if c = o, a > 11, and m 0.89772376 Nisan 15 is on the (M + 1)th of March; in all other cases, on the Mth of March.

This formula is intended to determine on which day of the week the Mth of March falls: the excess of days over complete weeks is 1 day in ordinary years, 2 days in leap-years, or 5 days in every 4 years. The first of March of the year 1 was on Saturday; the excess of days over complete weeks from the first of March of the year 1 to the Mth of March of the year A is = 6 + M + 5/4 (A - b) + (b - 1) = M + 12/4 (A - b) + 5 + b (because addition or subtraction of a multiple of 7 does not alter the result) = M + 3 A - 2b + 5 = M + 3 A + 5 b + 5.

Relation of Jewish and Christian Dates.

In order to facilitate the comparison of the two systems of dates, tables are appended which show the date for each day in 1,000 years from the year 1001 to 2000. In Table I. the first column gives the years of the common era; the second column, those of the era of the creation (according to Jewish tradition, the asterisks indicating the leap-years); in the third columns the letters "r," "p," and "d" indicate whether the Hebrew year is regular, perfect, or defective; the next column has the figures 2, 3, 5, 7 to indicate whether the first of Tishri is on Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, or Saturday. The last column gives the difference between the standard dates of Table II. and the actual dates of the year in question: e.g., 1110 C.E. or 4870* A.M. p. 7—7 (i.e., the year 1110 C.E.) corresponds to 4870 A.M., which is a leap-year having 13 months, and perfect; having 385 days, the first of Tishri, Saturday, and 7 days before Sept. 4.

This difference has to be added to the Christian date if that is sought from the given Jewish date, and deducted from the Jewish date if the latter is sought from the given Christian date. As regards the Jewish date between Nisan and Elul of the year x, or the Christian date between March and December, use the difference given for x + 1; otherwise that for the year x.

Table II. contains the Jewish and Christian dates of one year, beginning first of Nisan, and March 11; and having Tishri 1 on Sept. 4. As the Christian year is longer than the Jewish common year, the table has been extended to the end of Nisan of the succeeding year. From Kislew onward there are three lines for each month, marked "r," "p," and "d," and according as the year is regular, perfect, or defective, the one or the other line is to be used. In We-Adar "r," "p," and "d" have each two lines, marked respectively "c" and "l," the one for the common Christian year, the second for the Christian leap-year. The first column of dates contains the dates for the first days of Rosh-ḥodesh of those months which have two days Rosh-ḥodesh. The difference between the dates of any particular year and this standard table (Table I, 5th column) applies to the months from Tishri onward in that year, and also to the months from Nisan to Elul of the previous year (and from January to March of that year, and from March to December of the previous year). The dates which fall on the same day of the week as the first of Tishri are printed in heavier figures. The following two examples illustrate the use of the tables:

Maimonides was born Nisan 14, 4895; find the corresponding Christian date. In Table I. is found 4895 A.M. corresponds to 1135 C.E.; and that the number of difference for 4896 (which also applies to the last six months of 4895) is 6. In Table II. the fourteenth of Nisan corresponds to March 24; add 6, and the result is: March 30, 1135. The first of Tishri, according to Table I., was on Tuesday, and the fourteenth of Nisan, occupying the fifth place from the date in heavy figures, was on Saturday.

What Hebrew date corresponds to Aug. 15, 1520? Table I: 1521 = 5281 9. Table II.: Aug. 15 = Elul 10; Deduct 9. Hence: Aug. 15, 1520 = Elul 1, 5280.

According to Table I., the first of Tishri is on Thursday, and in Table II. Elul 1 closely precedes the date printed in heavier figures. Elul 1, 5280, was on a Wednesday.

Cycle or Maḥzor.

There are two cycles: the large cycle ("maḥzor gadol") of twenty-eight solar years, and the small cycle of nineteen lunar years. In twenty-eight solar years the teḳufot (according to Samuel) complete their course of variations as regards the hour of the day, and the day of the week; and New-Year's Day (Jan. 1) follows exactly the same order every twenty-eight years as regards the day of the week. The cycle of nineteen lunar years (the cycle of Meton) determines the sequence of common years and leap-years in the Jewish calendar, because nineteen lunar years with seven extra months of seven leap-years approximately equal nineteen solar years.

Thirteen small cycles, = 247 years, form the cycle ("'iggul") of Rabbi Naḥshon. This cycle has almost an exact number of weeks, only 905 parts being wanted to complete the last week. The first of Tishri after 247 years falls on the same day of the week for a long period, but by no means forever, on account of the deficiency of 905 parts; nor does the same order of the years as regards their characteristics repeat itself after 247 years.

The cycles of "shemiṭah" (seven years), of year of release, and of "yobel" (fifty years = jubilee), do not affect the Jewish calendar.

The following is a list of the dates of Jewish festivals and fasts:

Nisan14.Eve of Passover.
15.Paassover, first day.
16."second day.
17-20.Ḥol ha-mo'ed, or middle days.
21.Passover, seventh day.
22."eighth day.
Iyyar Siwan18.Lag ba-'omer, or thirty-third of the 'Omer.
6.Shabu'ot or Pentecost, first day.
7.""" second day.
Tammuz Ab. Tishri17.Fast of Tammuz.
9.""Ab.
1.New Year, first day.
2.""second day.
3.Fast of Gedaliah.
10.Day of Atonement.
15.Tabernacles, first day.
16."second day.
17-21.Ḥol ha-mo'ed, or middle days.
21.Hoshana rabba.
22.Eighth-day Festival.
23.Rejoicing of the Law.
Kislew Ṭebet Shebaṭ Adar25.Ḥanukkah, first day.
10.Fast of Ṭebet.
15.New Year for trees.
13.Fast of Estherin common years.
14.Purim
15.Shushan Purim
Adar we-Adar14-15.Purim Ḳaṭanin leap years
13.Past of Esther
14.Purim
15.Shushan Purim
Bibliography:
  • Isaac Israeli, Yesod 'Olam;
  • Slonimski, Yesod ha-'Ibbur;
  • A. Schwartz, Der Jüdische Kalender, Breslau, 1872;
  • Al-Biruni, The Chronology of the Ancient Nations, London, 1879;
  • S. B. Barnaby, The Jewish and Mohammedan Calendar, London, 1901;
  • I. Loeb, Tables du Calendrier Juif, Paris, 1886.
  • Maimonides, Mishneh Torah, Hil. Ḳiddush ha-Ḳodesh;
  • Abraham Cohen Pimentel, Minḥat Kohen, Amsterdam, 1668.
A. M. F.TABLE I. Showing Dates for Each Day in a Thousand Years From the Year 4761 (1001 C.E.) to 5760 (2000 C.E.).
Note.—The letters "r," "p," "d," in the third column indicate whether the Jewish year is regular, perfect, or defective. The figures 2, 3, 5, 7, in column 4, indicate the day of the week (Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, or Saturday) on which Tishri 1 falls.
12345
10014761*p2-2
22d218
33r56
4*4*p2-5
55p214
66d74
77*r3-8
8*8p211
99*d70
10104770r518
11p27
2*2*p7-3
33d716
44r34
55*p7-7
6*6p713
77*d52
88r320
99p79
1020*4780*p5-1
11r518
22d27
33*p5-5
4*4r515
55p23
66*d7-7
77r511
8*8*p20
99d219
10304790r57
11*p20
2*2p216
33d75
44*r3-7
10354795p212
6*6*d72
77p519
88r39
99*p7-2
1040*4800p718
11*r57
22d20
33p714
4*4r54
55d2-8
66p710
77p50
8*8r520
99d28
10504810p5-0
11r516
2*2p25
33d7-6
44r512
55p21
6*6d221
77p58
88r3-2
99p217
1060*4820d77
11r3-6
22p213
33p73
4*4*d5-7
55r310
66*p7-1
77p719
8*8r59
10694829*d2-3
10704830p715
11r55
2*2*d2-6
33p711
44*p51
55r521
6*6d210
77p5-3
88r517
99p26
1080*4840*d7-4
11r513
22p22
33*p7-8
4*4d712
55*r3-1
66p218
77p78
8*8*d5-2
99r315
10904850p74
11*d5-6
2*2r312
33*p70
44p720
55r510
6*6*d2-1
77p716
88r56
99*p2-5
1100*4860d215
11r52
22*p2-9
11034863p211
4*4*d71
55r517
66p28
77*d7-3
8*8p515
99r34
11104870*p7-7
11d713
2*2*r31
33p219
44p79
55*d5-1
6*6r317
77p75
88*p5-5
99r515
1120*4880d24
11*p5-9
22r511
33*d20
4*4p718
55r57
66*p2-4
77d216
8*8p54
99*r3-7
11304890p212
11*d72
2*2r520
33p28
44*d7-2
55p516
6*6r36
11374897*p7-6
88p714
99r54
1140*4900*d2-7
11p710
22*d50
33r318
4*4p77
55*p5-4
66r516
77d25
8*8*p5-7
99r512
11504910*d21
11p719
2*2r59
33*p2-3
44d217
55p55
6*6*r3-5
77p213
88d73
99*r322
1160*4920p210
11*p7-1
22d719
33r37
4*4*p7-4
55p715
66r55
77*d2-6
8*8p712
99*d51
11704930r319
11714931p78
2*2*p5-2
33r517
44d26
55*p5-6
6*6r514
77p22
88*d723
99r510
1180*4940*p2-1
11p218
22d78
33*r3-4
4*4p215
55p74
66*d5-6
77r312
8*8*p71
99p720
11904950r510
11*d2-1
2*2p717
33r36
44*d2-5
55p713
6*6r53
77*p222
88d211
99*p5-1
1200*4960r519
11p27
22*d7-3
33r515
4*4p24
55*d7-7
66p511
77r31
8*8p220
99d79
12104970*r3-3
11p216
2*2p76
33*d5-5
44r313
55p72
6*6*p5-8
77r511
88*d20
99p718
1220*4980r58
11*d2-4
22p714
33r54
4*4*p2-7
55d212
66*p50
77r520
8*8p29
99*d7-2
12304990r516
11p25
2*2*d7-5
33p512
44r32
55*p7-9
6*6d711
77r3-2
88p217
99p77
1240*5000*d5-3
11r314
22p73
33*p5-7
4*4r513
55*d21
66p719
77r39
8*8*d2-2
99p715
12505010r55
11*p2-6
2*2d214
33p51
44*r322
55p210
6*6*d70
77r517
88p26
99*p7-4
1260*5020*p716
12615021r33
22*p7-8
33p712
4*4d52
55r319
66p78
77*p5-2
8*8r518
99d26
12705030*p5-6
11r514
2*2p2-3
33*d718
44r5-0
55*p211
6*6d29
77r5-6
88*p215
99p25
1280*5040d75
11*r3-8
22p211
33*d71
4*4p519
55r38
66*p7-4
77p717
8*8r57
99*d2-5
12905050p713
11r53
2*2*d2-8
33d79
44*p5-1
55r519
6*6d28
77*p5-5
88r515
99p24
1300*5060*d7-6
11r511
22*p20
33d220
4*4p58
55*r3-3
66p216
77d76
8*8*r3-6
99p212
13105070p72
11*d5-8
2*2r310
33*p7-2
44p718
55r58
6*6*d2-3
77p714
88r54
99*d2-7
1320*5080p711
11*p50
22r520
33d29
4*4*p5-3
55r516
66p25
77*d7-5
8*8r513
99p21
13305090*p7-9
11d711
2*2*r3-1
33p217
44p73
55*d5-3
6*6r315
77p73
88*d57
99r311
1340*5100*p70
11p719
22r59
33*d2-2
4*4p716
55r55
66*p26
77d214
8*8r52
99*p2-10
13505110p210
13515111d70
2*2r518
33p26
44*d7-4
55r514
6*6p23
77*p7-8
88d712
99*r30
1360*5120p219
11p78
22*d5-2
33r316
4*4p75
55*p5-6
66r514
77d23
8*8*p5-9
99r510
13705130*d2-1
11p717
2*2r57
33*p2-5
44d215
55p53
6*6*r3-7
77p211
88d71
99r519
1380*5140p28
11*d7-3
22p515
33r35
4*4*p7-6
55p713
66r53
77*d2-8
8*8p710
99*d5-1
13905150r317
11p76
2*2*p5-4
33r515
44d24
55*p5-8
6*6r512
77*d20
88p718
99r58
1400*5160*p2-3
11d216
22p54
33*r3-6
4*4p213
55d72
66*r3-10
77p29
8*8*p7-1
99d718
14105170r36
11*p7-5
2*2p715
33r54
44*d2-7
55p711
6*6*d51
77r318
88p77
99*p5-3
1420*5180r517
11d25
22*p5-7
33r513
4*4p22
55*d7-9
66r59
77*p2-2
8*8p218
99d77
14305190*r3-5
11p214
2*2p74
33*d5-7
44r311
55*p70
6*6d720
77r37
88*p7-4
99p716
1440*5200r56
14415201*d2-6
22p712
33r52
4*4*p2-9
55d210
66*p5-2
77r518
8*8p27
99*d7-4
14505210r514
11p23
2*2*d7-7
33p510
44*r30
55p219
6*6d79
77*r3-4
88p215
99p75
1460*5220*d5-5
11r312
22p71
33*p5-9
4*4r511
55*d2-1
66p717
77r57
8*8*d2-4
99p713
14705230r53
11*p2-8
2*2d212
33*p5-1
44r519
55p28
6*6*d7-2
77r515
88p24
99*d7-6
1480*5240p512
11r31
22*p7-10
33d710
4*4*r3-2
55p216
66p76
77*d5-4
8*8r314
99p72
14905250*p5-8
11r512
2*2*d21
33p718
44r58
55*d2-3
6*6p715
77r54
88*p2-7
99d213
1500*5260p51
11*r3-10
22p29
33*d7-1
4*4r517
55p25
66*p7-5
77d715
8*8r33
99*p7-9
15105270p711
11*d51
2*2r319
33p77
44*p5-3
55r517
6*6d26
77*p5-7
88r513
99p22
1520*5280*d7-8
11r59
22*p2-2
33d218
4*4r56
55*p2-6
66p214
77d74
8*8*r3-8
99p210
15305290*d70
15315291p518
2*2r38
33*p7-4
44p716
55r56
6*6*d2-5
77p712
88r52
99d2-9
1540*5300p79
11*p52
22r518
33d27
4*4*p5-5
55r514
66p23
77*d7-7
8*8r511
99*p2-1
15505310d219
11p57
2*2*r3-3
33p215
44d75
55*r3-7
6*6p212
77p71
88*d5-9
99r39
1560*5320*p7-2
11p717
22r57
33*d2-4
4*4p714
55r53
66*d2-8
77p710
8*8*p50
99r519
15705330d28
11*p5-4
2*2r516
33p24
44*d7-6
55r512
6*6p21
77*d7-10
88p58
99*r3-2
1580*5340p217
11d76
22r3-6
33p223
4*4p113
55*d52
66r320
77*p79
8*8p729
99r518
15905350*d27
11p725
2*2r515
33*p23
44d223
55r510
6*6*p20
77p219
88*d79
99r527
1600*5360p216
11*d75
22r523
33p212
4*4*p72
55d721
66*r39
77p228
8*8p718
99*d57
16105370r325
11p714
2*2*p54
33r523
44d212
55*p50
6*6r520
77*d28
88p726
99r516
1620*5380*p25
16215381d224
22r512
33*p21
4*4p221
55d710
66r528
77p217
8*8*d77
99p524
16305390r314
11*p73
2*2p723
33r512
44*d21
55p719
6*6*d59
77r326
88p715
99*p55
1640*5400r525
11d213
22*p51
33r521
4*4*d210
55p727
66r517
77*p26
8*8d226
99p513
16505410*r33
11p222
2*2d712
33*r3-1
44p218
55*p78
6*6d728
77r315
88*p74
99p724
1660*5420r514
11*d22
22p720
33*d510
4*4r328
55*p716
66p56
77r526
8*8d215
99*p52
16705430r522
11p211
2*2*d71
33r518
44*p27
55p227
6*6d717
77*r34
88p223
99p713
1680*5440*d53
11r320
22*p79
33d729
4*4r317
55*p75
66p725
77r515
8*8*d24
99p721
16905450r511
11*p20
2*2d220
33*p570
44r527
55p216
6*6*d76
16975457r523
88p212
99*d72
17005460p520
11*r310
22p229
33d719
4*4*r37
55p225
66p715
77*d55
8*8r323
99p711
17105470*p51
11r521
2*2*d710
33p227
44r717
55*d56
6*6p224
77r513
88*p22
99d222
1720*5480*p510
11r529
22p218
33*d78
4*4r526
55p214
66*d74
77p522
8*8r312
99*p70
17305490d720
11*r310
2*2p229
33p718
44*d58
55r326
6*6p719
77*p54
88r522
99*d211
1740*5500p729
11r518
22*d27
33p725
4*4r515
55*p23
66d223
77p511
8*8*r31
99p219
17505510*d79
11r527
2*2p216
33*p75
44d725
55r313
6*6*p72
77p721
88*d511
99r329
1760*5520p718
11*d57
22r325
33p714
4*4*p54
55r523
66d212
77*p50
8*8r520
99*p28
17705530d228
11r516
2*2*p25
17735533p224
44d714
55*r32
6*6p221
77*d710
88p528
99r318
1780*5540*p77
11p726
22r516
33*d25
4*4p723
55r512
66*d21
77p719
8*8*p59
99r528
17905550d217
11*p55
2*2r525
33p213
44*d73
55r521
6*6*p210
77d229
88p517
99*r37
1800*5560p226
11d716
22*r34
33p223
4*4p713
55*d52
66r320
77*p79
8*8p729
99r518
18105570*d27
11p725
2*2r515
33*d23
44p721
55*p511
6*6r531
77d219
88*p57
99r527
1820*5580p216
11*d75
22r523
33p212
4*4*d72
55p519
66*r39
77p228
8*8d718
99*r35
18305590p224
11p714
2*2*d54
33r321
44*p710
55p730
6*6r520
77*d28
88p726
99r516
1840*5600*p25
11d224
22r512
33*p21
4*4p221
55*d710
66r528
77p217
8*8*d77
18495609r524
18505610p213
11*p73
2*2d723
33*r310
44p229
55p719
6*6*d59
77r326
88p715
99*p55
1860*5620r525
11d213
22*p51
33r521
4*4*d210
55p727
66r517
55p727
66r517
77*p26
8*8d226
99r513
18705630*p22
11p222
2*2*d712
33r529
44p218
55*d78
6*6p526
77r315
88*p74
99p724
1880*5640r514
11*d22
22p720
33*d510
4*4r328
55p716
66*p56
77r526
8*8d215
99*p52
18905650r522
11*d211
2*2p729
33r518
44*p27
55d227
6*6p515
77*r34
88p223
99d713
19005660*r31§
11p220
22*d710
33p528
4*4r318
55*p76
66p726
77r516
8*8*d25
99p722
19105670*d512
11r330
2*2p719
33*p58
44r528
55d217
6*6*p55
77r524
88p213
99*d73
1920*5680r521
11*p29
22p229
33d719
4*4*r37
19255685p225
66p715
77*d55
8*8r323
99*p711
19305690d731
11r319
2*2*p78
33p727
44r517
55*d26
6*6p724
77r513
88*p22
99d222
1940*5700*p510
11r529
22p218
33*d78
4*4r526
55p214
66*d74
77r522
8*8*p211
99p230
19505710d720
11*r38
2*2p227
33p716
44*d56
55r324
6*6p713
77*p52
88r522
99*d211
1960*5720p729
11r518
22*d27
33p725
4*4r515
55*p23
66d223
77*p511
8*8r531
99p219
19705730*d79
11r527
2*2p216
33*d75
44p523
55r313
6*6*p72
77d721
88*r39
99p228
1980*5740p718
11*d57
22r325
33p714
4*4*p54
55r523
66*d212
77p730
8*8r520
99*d28
19905750p726
11r516
2*2*p25
33d224
44p512
55*r32
6*6p221
77*d710
88r528
99p217
2000*5760*p77
13 up to Oct. 4, 1582 = Tishri 18. 5343.
From 1 March 21.
From 1 March 27.
§From 1 March 2.
TABLE II. Showing Jewish and Christian Dates for One Year, Having First of Tishri on Sept. 4.
Month.301234567891011121314151617181920212223242526272829
NisanMar. 111213141516171819202122232425262728293031Apr. 12345678
IyyarApr. 9101112131415161718192021222324252627282930May 12345678
SiwanMay 910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031June 123456
TammuzJune 789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930July 123456
AbJuly 78910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031Aug. 1234
ElulAug. 5678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031Sept. 123
TishriSept. 456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930Oct. 12
HeshwanOct. 345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031Nov. 1
KislewrNov. 23456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
"pNov. 23456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930Dec. 1
"dNov. 23456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
ṬebetrDec. 123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
"pDec. 2345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031
"dDec. 1234567891011121314151617181920212223242526272829
ShebaṭrDec. 31Jan. 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728
"pJan. 1234567891011121314151617181920212223242526272829
"dDec. 3031Jan. 123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627
AdarrJan. 293031Feb. 123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627
"pJan. 3031Feb. 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728
"dJan. 28293031Feb. 1234567891011121314151617181920212223242526
We-AdarrcFeb. 28Mar. 1234567891011121314151617181920212223242526272829
""rlFeb. 2829Mar. 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728
""pcMar. 123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
""plFeb. 29Mar. 1234567891011121314151617181920212223242526272829
""dcFeb. 2728Mar. 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728
""dlFeb. 272829Mar. 123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627
NisanrcFeb. 28Mar. 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728
"rlFeb. 2829Mar. 123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627
"pcMar. 1234567891011121314151617181920212223242526272829
"plFeb. 29Mar. 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728
"dcFeb. 2728Mar. 123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627
"dlFeb. 272829Mar. 1234567891011121314151617181920212223242526
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