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CHÂLONS-SUR-SAÔNE (Hebrew, or ):

Capital of the department of Saône-et-Loire, France. Jews were established in the city at an early period; the council that convened there in 630 forbade them to sell slaves abroad. A mint-master named Priscus, who held office at Châlons in 555, seems to be identical with the Jew of that name who, in the presence of Gregory of Tours, had a theological controversy with the king Chilperic. Among the other Jewish mint-masters of this period mention is made of Jacote of Châlons, Juse of Macon, Jacotus of Orleans, etc. In the second half of the eleventh century R. Eliezer ben Judah, the pupil of R. Isaac ben Menahem of Orleans, lived at Châlons. The celebrated Rashi of Troyes corresponded with the scholars of (Châlons; Latin, "Cabillonum"), who took part in the synod convened at Troyes about 1160 under the direction of R. Jacob Tam of Rameru.

In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries the Jewish community of Châlons was one of the most important of Burgundy, although its members were still periodically subjected to harsh treatment. The most eminent Jews of the period (1306) were Hélion and Bénion, who numbered important personages among their debtors, and (1384-95) Alisa of Treves, Namiet Lévi, Solomon of Montrćal, Saulcin Beaugey, Aaron Lévy, Croissant of Bourges, Isaac of Troyes, Maître Pérez, and R. Joseph, author of a commentary on the Pentateuch, in which he frequently cites the Bible commentator R. Eliakim or as his master and compatriot. Châlons-sur-Saône has to-day (1902) a small Jewish community, placed under the administrative and religious authority of the consistory of Lyons.

Bibliography:
  • Depping, Les Juifs dans le Moyen Age, p. 45;
  • Vicomte Ponton d'Amécourt, Description Raisonnée des Monnaies Mérovingiennes de Châlons-sur-Saóne, pp. 92, 95;
  • idem, Essai sur les Monnaies Mérovingiennes, pp. 68, 189;
  • Simonnet, Juifs et Lombards, pp. 159 et seq.;
  • Gerson, Essai sur les Juifs de la Bourgogne, pp. 29, 30, 35, etc.;
  • Joel Müller, Réponses des Rabbins Français, p. 10;
  • Gross, Gallia Judaica, p. 590.
G. S. K.
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