The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Means of protection from assault. In Biblical times outlying farms were protected from bands of marauders by watch-towers ("migdal"; see Tower). When the collection of houses in a village became large enough to need protection, they were generally enclosed by a wall, and were then known as cities. At times centers of strategic importance were held as fortresses (see Fortress).

G. J.
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