A city in Eichsfelde, province of Hanover. Jews have lived there as early as the beginning of the fourteenth century, as appears from the renewal of the privileges for that town by Duke Henry II. on Nov. 17, 1314. They enjoyed the rights of citizenship, which fact was emphasized by the dukes Henry, Ernest, and William in their confirmation of the privileges on July 15, 1324. A synagogue and a school in Duderstadt are mentioned in a document dated May 1 of the year 1338, according to which the Jew Samuel sold before the city council a yearly interest on that building amounting to one farthing. The Jews of Duderstadt were involved in the calamities which followed the Black Death (1348-49). After some decades a Jew of the name of Benedict settled again in Duderstadt, who, according to an entry in the revenue records, paid one mark as Jewish protection money ("Jodinschot"). He was followed by other Jews in the fifteenth century. In 1435 the council of the place made a contract with Isaac of Amöneburg and his son Fivis to receive them into the city upon a payment of 120 gulden; in 1457 it defined the rights and duties of Jews when it granted certain of them, such as the children of "Nachtmann and Schalammes," the privilege of settlement for three years. The number of Jews in Duderstadt from 1450 to 1460 was 12, and their annual payments averaged from 5 to 14 marks. The council in 1465 received "Abraham de Jodde myt syner moder" (Abraham the Jew with his mother) for seven years, and in 1489 Nathan, Jacob, the "Nathanite woman," and Meïr of Würzburg (Nathan's brother) for six years. At that time a synagogue was erected again, and its inventory for the years 1435-42 and 1466 has been preserved. A special street was assigned to the Jews, which is first mentioned in 1497. There is also documentary evidence of a "Jews' Gate" (first in 1469) and of a "Jodenborn" (Jews' bath, 1495). Only scanty records exist for the following centuries. In 1902 the community numbered about 100 souls. Its new temple was dedicated Aug. 24, 1898.
- Joh. Wolf, Gesch. und Beschreibung der Stadt Duderstadt, pp. 238 et seq., Göttingen, 1803;
- idem, Politische Gesch. des Eichsfeldes;
- Jaeger, Urkundenbuch der Stadt D. bis zum Jahre 1500, Hildesheim, 1885, Nos. 14, 33, 58, 72, 115, 285, 370, note to No. 370, and Nos. 490, 503, 510, 511, 515, 519, Supplement No. viii.;
- M. Wiener, in Monatsschrift, x. 127 et seq.;
- Salfeld, Das Martyrol. des Nürnberger Memorb. p. 83, note 7, and p. 284, note 5 (see Lewinsky's review in Zeitsch. für Hebr. Bibl. iii. 82);
- Allg. Zeit. des Jud. Sept. 16, 1898, No. 37.