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FRIEDMANN ("ISH SHALOM"), MEÏR BEN JEREMIAH:

Austrian scholar; born at Kraszna, in the district of Kashau, Hungary, July 10, 1831. At the age of thirteen he entered the yeshibah at Ungvar, where he was attracted to Ḥasidism and the Cabala. Fortunately, however, at the age of sixteen he was led by the "Bi'ur" of Mendelssohn to the study of the Bible, and became deeply interested in Hebrew poetry, especially in Wassely's "Shire Tife'ret." At twenty, while living at Miskolez, where he earned his livelihood by giving instruction in Talmudical literature, he took up secular studies. In 1858 he entered the University of Vienna. When, in 1864, the Vienna bet ha-midrash was founded he was chosen as teacher of the Bible and Midrash; that office he still (1903) holds. Later he was elected a professor in the Israelitisch-Theologische Lehranstalt.

Friedmann has devoted himself chiefly to theediting of old Midrashim, to which he has added critical notes and valuable introductions. These notes, written in classical rabbinical style, are models of precision and are of great value. Friedmann has published the following works in Hebrew: The Sifre, Vienna, 1864; the Mekilta, ib. 1870; "Eshet Ḥayil," a commentary on Prov. xxxi. ib. 1878; the Pesiḳta Rabbati, ib. 1880; "Ha-Ẓiyyon," a rational interpretation of Ezek. xx. ib. 1882; "Dabar 'al Odot ha-Talmud," on the question whether the Talmud can be accurately translated, ib. 1885; "Masseket Makkot," a critical edition of the Talmudical treatise Makkot, with a commentary, ib. 1888; "Sefer Shofeṭim," notes to Judges, ib. 1891; "Me'ir 'Ayin," a commentary on the Passover Haggadah, ib. 1895; "Tanna, debe Eliyahu," ib. 1900. Friedmann's German publications are: "Worte der Erinnerung an Isaac Noa Mannheimer," ib. 1873; "Die Juden ein Ackerbautreibender Stamm," ib. 1878; "T. G. Stern, Gedenkrede," ib. 1883; "Zerubabel," German explanation of Isa., lii. 19 and liii. ib. 1890; "Worte zur Feier des 100 Jahrigen Geburtstages des Seligen Predigers Isaac Noa Mannheimer," 1893; "Onkelos und 'Aḳylos," ib. 1896. From 1881 to 1886 Friedmann published, together with Isaac Hirsh Weiss, the monthly "Bet Talmud," devoted to rabbinical studies. To this periodical Friedmann contributed, under the signature "Ish Shalom," many valuable essays, of which the most noteworthy are on the arrangement of the Pentateuch and on Samuel.

Bibliography:
  • Brainin, in Luaḥ Ahiasaf, pp. 343 et seq., 1901;
  • Ha-Shiloaḥ, p. 573, 1901;
  • S. Schechter, in Jew. Chron. p. 17, June 28, 1901.
S. I. Br.
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