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HANANIAH (ḤANINA) B. 'AḲABIA (AKIBA):

Tanna of the second century; contemporary of Judah b. 'Ilai (M. Ḳ. 21a), and probably one of the younger pupils of Gamaliel II. (Ket. viii. 1). His name rarely appears in connection with haggadot; but he was firmly grounded in the Halakah. Rab expresses great admiration for Hananiah's acumen (Shab. 83b). Notwithstanding his prominence, his prænomen as well as his patronymic is uncertain: "Hananiah" and "Ḥanina" for the former, and "'Aḳabia" and "Akiba" for the latter appearing promiscuously in connection with one and the same halakah (comp. 'Ar. i. 3; Sifra, Beḥuḳḳotai, xii. 8; 'Ar. 6b; Tosef., Parah, ix. [viii.] 9; Ḥag. 23a; Yeb. 116b). However, there is reason to believe that "'Aḳabia" is his right patronymic, and that he was the son of 'Aḳabia b. Mahalaleel (see "R. E. J." xli. 40, note 3). Hananiah was very fearless in the expression of his opinions and also opposed those of the leaders of academies, the "nasi" and his deputy (Tosef., Pes. viii. 7; Shab. 50a). His residence was at Tiberias, where he abrogated many restrictions which had hampered the comfort of the people ('Er. 87b, and parallel passages). Sometimes Hananiah (or Ḥanina) is cited without his patronymic (compare, for example, Yer. 'Er. viii. 25b and Shab. 83b), and one must be careful not to mistake him for an elder tanna of the same name, or vice versa (see Hananiah [Ḥanina], nephew of R. Joshua). To avoid such mistakes one must observe the associates cited in the debate or statement. If these belong to the age of Meïr, Jose, and Simon, Hananiah, the subject of this article, is meant; if they are of a former generation, R. Joshua's nephew is intended.

Bibliography:
  • Bacher, Ag. Tan. ii. 370;
  • Brüll, Mebo ha-Mishnah, i. 211;
  • Frankel, Darke ha-Mishnah, p. 186;
  • Heilprin, Seder ha-Dorot, ii., s.v.
E. C. S. M.
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