1. German annual published at Leipsic (C. L. Fritzsche) under the title, "Achawa, Jahrbuch für 1865=5625," from 1865 to 1868 by the Society for the Help of Needy Jewish Teachers, their Widows and Orphans. The annual treated specially of pedagogical questions, with here and there literary morceaux and articles by M. Wiener on the history of the Jews in Germany. 2. A monthly journal published at Amsterdam and founded about 1888 by a society of teachers bearing the same name. It is devoted exclusively to pedagogy.