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HEBRAISTS, CHRISTIAN:

The work of Christian scholars in the field of Hebrew literature demands special treatment, not only as part of the history of Jewish literature itself, but also as an indication of the relation which existed between Jews and Christians at various epochs. The neglect by Christians of this study has given rise to many of the false ideas in regard to the Jews and their history which have been current down to the present day. The early fathers of the Christian Church recognized the necessity of understanding the ideas of the mother Synagogue, and got their knowledge of Hebrew traditions (i.e., the Haggadah) from their Jewish teachers. This is seen especially in the exegesis of Justin Martyr, Aphraates, Ephraem Syrus, and Origen. Jerome's teachers are even mentioned by name—e.g., Bar Ḥanina (Hananiah). This knowledge, however, gradually grew less and less as the separation between Church and Synagogue became wider.

In the Renaissance.

What was known of Jewish literature came to the scholastics entirely through translations, as can be seen in the works of Albertus Magnus. That The Venerable Bede (673-735) knew anything of Hebrew may be doubted, despite the testimony of Hody in his "De Bibliorum Textibus" (1705). The same may be said of Alcuin (b. 735); but the "Magister Andreas, natione Anglus" mentioned by Roger Bacon, and identified by S. R. Hirsch with an Augustinian monk who lived about 1150, must at least have been able to read the Bible in the Hebrew original. Bacon himself (b. c. 1210) was "a tolerable Hebrew scholar." It was not, however, until the end of the fifteenth century that the Renaissance and the Reformation, while awakening a new interest in the classics, brought about a return to the original text of Scripture and an attempt to understand the later literature of the Jews. Hieronymus Buclidius, the friend of Erasmus, gave more than 20,000 francs to establish a Hebrew chair at Louvain; Francis called to the chair of Hebrew at the University of Paris Elijah Levita, the friend of Cardinal Ægidius of Viterbo. Cardinal Grimani and other dignitaries, both of the state and of the Church, studied Hebrew and the Cabala with Jewish teachers; even the warrior Guido Rangoni attempted the Hebrew language with the aid of Jacob "Mantino (1526). Pico de la Mirandola (d. 1494) was the first to collect Hebrew manuscripts, and Reuchlin was the first to write a modern grammar of the Hebrew language. But interest still centered wholly around the Bible and the expository literature immediately connected therewith. During the whole of the sixteenth century it was Hebrew grammar and Jewish exegesis that claimed attention. Christian scholars were not ashamed to sit at the feet of Jewish teachers. Sebastian Münster (d. 1552) was known as a grammarian; Pellicanus (d. 1556) and Pagninus (d. 1541), as lexicographers; Bomberg (d. 1549), as a printer of Hebrew books. Arius Montanus (d. 1598) edited the Masorah and the "Travels of Benjamin of Tudela." Widmanstadt (1523), living in a colony of Spanish Jewish refugees in Naples, studied Hebrew with David ibn Yaḥya and Baruch of Benevento, and collected the Hebrew manuscripts which formed the basis of the Hebrew division of the Royal Library at Munich. Vatablé (d. 1547) made use of Rashi's commentary. Conrad Gesner (d. 1565) was the first Christian to compile a catalogue of Hebrew books; Christmann (d. 1613) busied himself with the Jewish calendar, and Drusius (d. 1616) with the ethical writings of the Jews.

Seventeenth Century.

Johannes Buxtorf (d. 1629) marks a turning-point in the study of Jewish literature by Christians. He not only studied the Targum and the Talmud, but endeavored to understand Jewish history, and he was the first real bibliographer. Even women showed an interest in the subject—Anna Maria Schurman, the "star of the century," in Holland; Dorothea Moore in England; Queen Christina of Sweden (d. 1689); Maria Dorothea, consort of the Duke of Saxe-Weimar; Elizabeth, daughter of Frederick of the Palatinate; Maria Eleanora, wife of Charles Ludwig of the Palatinate; Antonia, daughter of Duke Eberhard of Württemberg. Through the influence of Buxtorf a serious attempt was made to understand the post-Biblical literature, and many of the most important works were translated into Latin. In this connection the following names may be mentioned: Coccejus (d. 1667); L'Empereur (d. 1648); Lightfoot (d. 1675); Leusden (d. 1699); and especially Surenhuis (1698), who gave a complete translation of the Mishnah; Jewish theology was studied by (Carpzov (d. 1699), Wagenseil (1705; whose letters show the care he tookto gather information from both Jews and Jewesses), and Rittangel (1641); antiquities, by Bochart (d. 1667), Hottinger (d. 1667), Hyde (d. 1700), Trigland (d. 1705), Breithaupt (1707), and Schudt (d. 1722). It was a time in which the Christian theologian studied Hebrew and rabbinics before taking up his specific theological study. Hackspan (d. 1659) wrote upon the value to the theologian of studying the works of the Rabbis. Their writings on the Bible were read by Schickard (1635), Hody (d. 1706), and Richard Simon (d. 1712), while catalogues of Hebrew collections were published by Plantavitius (d. 1651), Le Long (d. 1721), and Montfaucon (d. 1741). Hottinger gave this literature a place in his "Bibliotheca Orientalis"; Otho (1672) wrote a biographical lexicon of the Mishnah teachers; and Bartolocci's "Bibliotheca Rabbinica" (1675) was a worthy continuation of these bibliographical labors.

Eighteenth Century.

The first half of the eighteenth century contains the names of three important scholars. Basnage (d. 1725), though he knew no Hebrew, may be mentioned here for the reason that his "L'Histoire de la Religion des Juifs" was the first attempt at a complete presentation of this history. The "Entdecktes Judenthum" of Eisenmenger (d.1704) exhibits a mass of Jewish learning; but its anti-Jewish tendency largely vitiated the service it might have rendered. Far ahead of these two stands Johann Christian Wolf (d. 1739), who, with the help of the Oppenheimer library, was able to produce his "Bibliotheca Hebræa," which laid the foundation for all later works in Hebrew bibliography. In addition to these, Bodenschatz (d. 1797) deserves mention. He, though not a scholarly Hebraist, gave an unbiased and accurate account of Jewish ceremonials. By the side of these stand Bashuysen (d. 1750), the translator and printer of Hebrew books; Reland (d. 1718), the first to use Talmudic material for the study of the geography of Palestine; the bibliographers Unger (d. 1719) and Gagnier (d. 1720), who gave Wolf his information regarding the manuscripts in the Bodleian; J. H. Michaelis (d. 1738) and Mai (d. 1732), who compiled a catalogue of the Uffenbach library; Baratier (d. 1740), the youthful prodigy, who wrote on Benjamin of Tudela; Mill (d. 1756), who treated rabbinical exegesis; and Wähner (1762), who described Hebrew antiquities. Ugolini (1744) is said to have been a converted Jew, and therefore finds no place here. Especial mention should be made of Ezra Stiles, the learned president of Yale College (1778), certainly the most learned Christian student of post-Biblical Jewish literature that America has produced.

Early Nineteenth Century.

Toward the end of the eighteenth century such friends of Hebrew literature became ever rarer. The rise of Biblical criticism and of the study of other Semitic languages engaged the whole interest of Semitic scholars. Even Rabe, the translator of the Mishnah into German (d. 1798), Semmler, Michaelis, Tychsen (d. 1815), and Sylvestre de Sacy (d. 1838) can hardly be mentioned by the side of the humanists of previous centuries. Interest in the text of the Bible caused some work to be done in the collecting of Hebrew manuscripts, especially by Kennicott in England (1776-80) and De Rossi in Italy (1784-88). The last-named made a most valuable collection of Hebrew manuscripts; and by his side may be mentioned Pasinus in Turin (d. 1749), Biscioni in Florence (d. 1752), Assemani in Rome (d. 1756), and Ury in Oxford (d. 1787).

At the Universities.

The downward trend continued in the first half of the nineteenth century; Jewish literature became less and less a subject of investigation by Christians; and when it was studied it was generally for the purpose of forging weapons against the people whose literature it was. This is seen in such works as A. T. Hartmann's "Thesaurus Linguæ Hebr. c Mischna Augendi" (1825), in Winer's "Biblisches Real Wörterbuch," and even in the works of Hitzig and Ewald. There was no understanding even of the period of Jewish history during which Christianity arose and developed; and David Strauss's complaint in regard to this was only too well founded. During the second half of the nineteenth century, however, the idea gained currency that there was something to be learned by going back to the sources of this history; but only a very few of the universities made a place for this study in their curricula. At the beginning of the eighteenth century David Rudolph of Liegnitz included "Rabbinisch und Chaldäisch" among the Oriental languages which he taught at Heidelberg; but he had few imitators; and in the nineteenth century, apart from a few stray courses, such as Kautzsch's on Redak at Tübingen, Lagarde's on Al-Ḥarizi at Göttingen, and Strack's on the Mishnah at Berlin, the whole of rabbinic literature was ignored by European universities. Honorable exceptions in this respect were furnished in the universities of Oxford (where A. Cowley is sublibrarian of the Bodleian Library) and Cambridge (which has produced such scholars as W. H. Lowe, Matthews, and C. Taylor) in England, and in Columbia University, the University of California, the University of Chicago, Harvard University, and Johns Hopkins University, in America. The Jews have been allowed to work out by themselves the new Jewish science ("Jüdische Wissenschaft"), little attention being paid to that work by others.

In more recent times a few Christian scholars have given Jewish literature their attention. Abbé Pietro Perreau has done good service by his many articles on the literature of the Jews in the Middle Ages and by the assistance he has given to scholars from the Hebrew manuscripts at Parma; Martin Hartmann has translated and commentated the "Meteḳ Sefatayim" of Immanuel Frances (Berlin, 1894); Thomas Robinson has collected some good material in his "The Evangelists and the Mishna" (1859). August Wünsche, in his "Erläuterung der Evangelien aus Midrasch und Talmud" (1878), enlarged the scope of the inquiry begun by Lightfoot; and his translations from the Midrash opened up the stores of ancient Jewish exegesis. Weber's "System der Altsynagogalen Palestinischen Theologie" (1880) was, with all its failings, an honest attempt to understand the theology of the Synagogue, and it has been worthily followed by Bousset in his "Religiondes Judenthums im Neutestamentlichen Zeitalter" (1903). Dom Pedro, King of Brazil, should also be mentioned for his publication of Provençal Jewish poetry.

Present Day.

The Institutum Judaicum in Leipsic, founded by Franz Delitzsch, and a similar society bearing the same name in Berlin and founded by Hermann Strack, have attempted, by their various publications, to diffuse in the Christian world a knowledge of Jewish writings. Gustav Dalman has shown by his philological works on Talmudic grammar and lexicography that he is at home in the rabbinic writings. Hermann Strack in Berlin demands special mention not only for his publications dealing with the literature of the Mishnah and the Talmud, but also on account of the fearless manner in which he has combated anti-Semitic prejudice, drawing his material directly from the original sources. Carl Siegfried, in his yearly reports in the "Theologischer Jahresbericht," for many years called attention to publications on Jewish subjects, and the mention of such works in the "Orientalische Bibliographie" has served to bring them more closely to the attention of Christian scholars. The roll of Christian Hebraists in England includes the names of J. W. Etheridge, the author of a popular "Introduction to [post-Biblical] Hebrew Literature" (1856); Thomas Chenery, translator of "Legends from the Midrash" (1877), and editor of Al-Ḥarizi's translation of Ḥariri; and W. H. Lowe, who edited the Palestinian recension of the Mishnah.

In spite, however, of these facts and of the warning given by Lagarde ("Symmicta," ii. 147; "Mittheilungen," ii. 165), that in order to understand the Bible text itself a deep study of the Halakah is necessary, Christian writers on the life of Jesus continue their disregard of the primary sources. This may be seen in Hausrath's "Neutestamentliche Zeitgeschichte" ("Kaufmann Gedenkbuch," p. 659), and even in Schürer ("Gesch."), who, though making a great advance upon previous efforts, still relies upon second-hand sources for many of the pictures that he draws (see Abrahams in "J. Q. R." xi. 628). Adolph Harnack, who, in his "Dogmengeschichte" (3d ed.), endeavors to do some justice to the rabbis of old, falls, in his "Wesen des Christenthums" (1900), into many old errors through his ignorance of the Jewish literature of the period of which he treats, at the same time disregarding entirely the literature and history of the Jews during the last eighteen hundred years (Felix Perles, "Was Lehrt Uns Harnack?" Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1902).

The following list of Christian Hebraists has been compiled upon the basis of Steinschneider's article mentioned in the bibliography below. Christian students of the Bible have not been, included, as they may be found in other articles.

  • Aarhus, Peter Sim. (c. 1711; Hafen ?).
  • Abicht, Jo. Ge. (d. 1740; Wittenberg).
  • Adam, Eston (Benedictine; d. 1397; Hereford).
  • Adler, Jac. Ge Chr. (d. 1805; Copenhagen). Ægidius de Viterbo (1471-1532; Italy).
  • Alfonso de Leon Zamora (16th cent.).
  • Allixius, Petrus (17th cent.; Alençon).
  • Alting, Jacob (17th cent.; Gröningen).
  • Anchersen, Matth. (d. 1741; Jutland).
  • Anslus, Gerebrard (17th cent.).
  • Arias Montanus (Benedictine; d. 1598; Seville).
  • Armengaud (?), Blasius (d. 1314; Montpellier).
  • Arnd, Joshua (c. 1626; Güstrow).
  • Arnoldus, Michael (c. 1680; Holland).
  • Asp, Matth. (1696-1763; Upsala).
  • Assemani, Simon (d. 1821; Padua).
  • Aubry, Esaias (c. 1730; Berlin ?).
  • Bacon, Roger (1214-94; Oxford).
  • Baldi, Bernardino (1553-1617; Urbino).
  • Baratier, Jo. Phil. (1721-40; Schwabach).
  • Barozzi, Franc. (d. 1587; Italy).
  • Bartolocci, Jul. (1613-87; Rome).
  • Bashuysen, Henr. Jac. van (1679-1750; Hanau).
  • Baynus, Rudolphus (c. 1554; Paris).
  • Beckmann, Jo. Christ. (c. 1677; Frankfort-on-the-Oder).
  • Becks, Matth. Frid. (1649-1701; Augsburg).
  • Bedwell, William (1561-1632; London).
  • Beelen, Joh. Theodor (c. 1841; Amsterdam).
  • Beke, Matth. (c. 1708; Amsterdam).
  • Bellermann, Jo. Joachim (1754-1842; Erfurt).
  • Bengel (?), Eric (c. 1692; Sweden).
  • Bernard, Edward (1638-96; Oxford).
  • Bircherode, Jan. (1623-86; Copenhagen).
  • Biscioni, Anton. Maria (1674-1756; Florence).
  • Bleibtreu, Phil. Jo. (c. 1699; Frankfort-on-the-Main).
  • Bodecker, Stephan (Bishop; c. 1438; Brandenburg).
  • Bohlius, Sam. (1611-89; Rostock).
  • Borel, Adam, Jun. (1603-67; Zealand).
  • Böschenstein (?), Jo. (b. 1472; Austria).
  • Bourdelot (c. 1619; Paris).
  • Breithaupt, Joh. Fred. (1639-1713; Gotha).
  • Brighenti, Gio. Ant. (d. 1702; Verona).
  • Broughton, Hugh (1549-1612; Tottenham).
  • Buddaeus, Jo. Fr. (1667-1729; Halle?).
  • Burgonovo, Archangelus (Minorite; 16th cent.; Pozzo).
  • Buxtorf, Johannes I. (1564-1629; Basel).
  • Buxtorf, Johannes II. (1599-1664; Basel).
  • Buxtorf, Johannes Jakob (1645-1705; Basel).
  • Buxtorf, Johannes Jakob (1663-1732; Basel).
  • Cademannus, Jos. Rud. (d. 1720; Pegau).
  • Campen, Joh. van (1490-1538; Freiburg-im-Breisgau).
  • Caninius, Angelus (1521-57; Paris).
  • Cappellan, Claud. (d. 1667; Paris).
  • Carpzov, Johann (Benedictine; 1639-99; Leipsic).
  • Cartwright, Christ. (1602-58; York).
  • Castell, Edmund (1606-85; Higham).
  • Castro, Joh. Rodriguez de (1739-96; Madrid).
  • Cellarius (?), Jo. (c. 1518).
  • Chenery, Thomas (1826-84; London).
  • Chevalier, Ant. Rud. (1507-72; Germany).
  • Chiarini, Luigi (Abbé; 1789-1832; Warsaw).
  • Christmann, Jac. (1554-1613; Heidelberg).
  • Chytraeus, D. (c. 1551).
  • Ciselius, Phil. (c. 1696; Franeker).
  • Clanner (J. G. ?) (c. 1726 ?).
  • Clark, Sam. (c. 1657; Oxford).
  • Clavering, Rob (Bishop; 1671-1747; Peterborough).
  • Clodius, Jo. Chr. (d. 1633; Leipsic).
  • Cluverus, Jo. (17th cent.).
  • Cnollen, Adam Andreas (1674-1714; Füth).
  • Cnollen, Jos. Nicol. (brother of preceding).
  • Coccejus (Koch), Jo. (1603-69; Leyden).
  • Coddaeus, Giul. (1575-1630; Leyden).
  • Collin, C. E. (c. 1705; Giessen).
  • Collins, G. (c. 1890; Oxford).
  • Costus, Petrus (c. 1554).
  • Cotta, Jo. Fr. (1701-79; Tübingen).
  • Cramer, Jo. Jac. (1673-1702; Zurich).
  • Cramer, Jo. Rud. (1678-1731; Zurich).
  • Crenius, Thom. (1648-1728; Leyden).
  • Crocius, Lud. Mich. (c. 1673).
  • Croius (?), Jo. (18th cent.; Oxford).
  • Dachs, Fried. Bernh. (c. 1726; Utrecht).
  • Dalmaki, Laurentius (c. 1643; Hungary).
  • Danz, Jo. Andr. (1654-1728; Jena).
  • Dassovius, Theod. (d. 1721; Wittenberg; Kiel).
  • Disma, P. (c. 1757; Italy).
  • Dithmar, Just. Christ. (c. 1706; Holland?).
  • Donatus, Franc. (d. 1635; Rome).
  • Dove, John (c. 1746; London).
  • Drusius (Driesch), Jo. I. (1550-1616; Leyden).
  • Drusius, Jo. II. (son of preceding; 1588-1609; Chichester).
  • Ebertus, Jac. (1549-1614; Frankfort-on-the-Oder).
  • Ebertus, Theod. (d. 1630; Frankfort-on-the-Oder).
  • Eggers, Jo. (c. 1719; Basel; Leyden).
  • Einem, Jo. Justus von (c. 1738; Germany).
  • Eisenmenger, Joh. And. (1654-1704; Heidelberg).
  • Empereur, Constantin l' (1570-1648; Leyden).
  • Etheridge, J. W. (c. 1856; Penzance).
  • Fabricius, Ern. Christ. (c. 1792).
  • Fabricius, Fred. (1642-1703; Wittenberg).
  • Fagius (Buchlin), Paulus (1504-49; Cambridge).
  • Faust, Jo. Friedr. (c. 1706; Germany).
  • Ferrand, Lud. (c. 1640-1700; Paris).
  • Figueiro, Petrusa (c. 1615).
  • Fourmont, Etienne, the elder (1683-1745; Paris).
  • Franciscus, Maria (Capuchin).
  • Franck, Sebastian (c. 1537; Ulm).
  • Frey, Jo. Ludw. (1682-1759; Basel).
  • Frommann, Erh. Andr. (1722-74; Klosterbergen).
  • Fronmüller, Conrad (c. 1679; Altdorf?).
  • Fuller, Nicol. (1557-1626; Salisbury).
  • Gaffarellus, Jac. (1601-81).
  • Gagnier, Jos. (1670-1740; Oxford).
  • Galatinus, Petrus (c. 1518).
  • Galle, Joh. (c. 1711; Upsala).
  • Gaudia, Barthol. Valverdio (Spain).
  • Gaulmyn, Gilb. (d. 1667; France).
  • Gejerus, Martin (1614-80; Freiberg).
  • Genebrard, Gilb. (1537-97; Samur).
  • Gentius, Geo. (1618-87; Freiberg).
  • Georgios, Chrysococca (1340-56? Greece).
  • Germberg, Herm. (1604).
  • Giggeius, Ant. (d. 1632; Milan).
  • Gill, John (1697-1771; London).
  • Graser, Conrad (d. 1613; Germany).
  • Groddeck, Gaḅr. (1672-1709; Danzig).
  • Guidacerius (Guidacier), Agathius (c. 1540).
  • Guisius, Gul. (1653-90; Oxford).
  • Hackspan, Theodor (1607-59; Altdorf).
  • Haller, Albert (1708-77; Bern).
  • Hanel, Melchior (c. 1661; Prague).
  • Hannecken, Meno (1595-1677; Marburg).
  • Hardt, Anton Jul. van der (1707-85; Helmstädt).
  • Hardt, Herm. van der (1660-1746; Helmstädt).
  • Hartmann, Ant. Theodor (1774-1838; Rostock).
  • Hartmann, Jo. Phil. (c. 1708).
  • Hartmann, Martin (1851; living; Berlin).
  • Havemann, Chris. (17th cent.).
  • Hebenstreit, Johann Chr. (1686-1756; Leipsic).
  • Helenius, Engelbart (c. 1727; Sweden).
  • Helwig, Christopher (1581-1617; Giessen).
  • Hepburn, Jo. Bonaventura (1573-1621; Scotland).
  • Hilpert, Jo. (c. 1651).
  • Hinckelmann, Alr. (1652-95; Hamburg).
  • Hirt, Jo. Frid. (1719-84; Wittenberg).
  • Hochsteter, Andreas Adam (1668-1717; Tübingen).
  • Holten, Albert (c. 1675; Tübingen).
  • Hommel, Car. Ferd. (1722-81; Leipsic).
  • Honorius (Monk; 1452).
  • Hottinger, Jo. Henr. I. (1620-67; Heidelberg).
  • Hottinger, Jo. Henr. II. (c. 1704).
  • Houting, Henr. (c. 1695).
  • Hufnagel, G. F. (c. 1795).
  • Huldrich, Jo. Jac. (1683-1731).
  • Hulsius, Ant. (d. 1685; Holland).
  • Husen, Franc. (c. 1676).
  • Hyde, Thomas (1631-1703; Oxford).
  • Ikenius, Conrad (1689-1753; Bremen).
  • Imbonatus, Car. Jos. (d. 1696; Rome).
  • Jacobs, Henry (1608-52; Oxford).
  • Janvier, Renatus Ambros. (1613-82; Paris).
  • Johannes Lucæ (1406; Italy).
  • Justinianus, Augustin (1470-1531; "Episcopus Nebiensis").
  • Keller, Gottl. Wilh. (17th cent.; Jena [?]).
  • Kircher, Athanasius (Jesuit; 1602-80; Rome).
  • Knorr, Christian, Baron de Rosenroth (1636-89; Sulzbach).
  • Koccher, Herrm. Fried. (c. 1783; Jena).
  • König, Friedrich Eduard (1846; Reichenbach).
  • König, Sam. (1670-1750; Bern).
  • Köppen, Nic. (c. 1709; Greifswald).
  • Kosegarten, J. G. L. (1792-1860; Greifswald).
  • Krafft, Karl (c. 1839; Ansbach).
  • Kraut, Paul (c. 1703; Lund).
  • Kyber, David (16th cent.; Strasburg?).
  • Lagarde, Paul de (1827-91; Göttingen).
  • Lakemacher, Joh. Gothofr. (1695-1736; Helmstädt).
  • Lange, Jo. Joachim (1670-1744; Halle).
  • Lange, W. (c. 1710).
  • Langens, Henr. (c. 1720; Holland).
  • Lederlin, Jo. Henr. (1672-1737; Strasburg).
  • Lehmann, Ge. Heinrich (1619-99; Leipsic).
  • Leib, Chilian (Prior; 1471-1548; Rebdorf).
  • Le Long, Jac. (1665-1721; Paris).
  • Lenz, Jo. Leonh. (c. 1700; Germany).
  • Lepusculus, Sebastian (c. 1516; Germany).
  • Leusden, Joh. (1624-99; Utrecht).
  • Leydecker, Melchior (1642-1722; Utrecht).
  • Lightfoot, John (1602-75; Ely).
  • Lipomanni, Marco (c. 1440; Venice).
  • Loscan, Joh. Frid. (c. 1710; Germany).
  • Losius, Jo. Justus (c. 1706; Germany).
  • Lowe, W. H. (Cambridge).
  • Ludwig, Christ. L. (b. 1663, Landshut; d. 1732).
  • Lund, Dan. (b. 1666, Fogdoë; d. 1746, Strengnäs).
  • McCaul, Alexander (b. 1799, Dublin; d. 1863, London).
  • Mai, Joh. Hen. (1688-1732; Giessen).
  • Malamina, Cæsar (c. 1774; Florence).
  • Manfred (?), King (d. 1266; Germany).
  • Mannetti, Giannozzo (b. 1396, Florence; d. 1459, Naples).
  • Margoliouth, D. S. (living; Oxford).
  • Margoliouth, G. (living; London).
  • Margoliouth, Moses (b. 1820, Suwalki; d. 1881, London).
  • Marini, Marco (b. 1541, Brescia; d. 1594, Brescia).
  • Matthias Aquarius (c. 1581).
  • Matthias, Elias (Germany).
  • Meelführer, Rud. Martin (b. 1670, Ansbach; d. 1729).
  • Mercer, Jo. (d. 1570; Uzès).
  • Meyer, Jo. (c. 1693; Holland).
  • Michaelis, Jo. Henr. (b. 1717, Halle; d. 1791, Göttingen).
  • Midhorp, Joh. (c. 1562).
  • Mieg, Jo. Frid. (b. 1700, Marburg; d. 1788, Heidelberg).
  • Mill, David (b. 1692, Konigsberg; d. 1756, Utrecht).
  • Molitor, Christoph. (c. 1659; Altdorf).
  • Montfauçon, Bern (b. 1655, Soulange; d. 1741, Paris).
  • Moré, Eugène (c. 1837; France).
  • More, Henry (b. 1614, Grantham; d. 1687, Cambridge).
  • Morin, Etienne (b. 1625, Caen; d. 1700, Amsterdam).
  • Morin, Jean (b. 1591, Blois; d. 1659, Paris).
  • Muhl, Henr. (b. 1666, Bremen; d. c. 1730, Kiel).
  • Muhl, Jos. (Holstein).
  • Muis, Simon de (b. 1587, Orleans; d. 1644, Paris).
  • Münster, Sebastian (Minorite; b. 1489, Ingelheim; d. 1552, Basel).
  • Murner, Thomas (Minorite; b. 1475; d. 1537?).
  • Myerlin, David Fr. (d. 1778; Frankfort-on-the-Main).
  • Nagel, Jo. Andr. Mich. (1740-1788; Altdorf).
  • Neale, Thomas (c. 1557; England).
  • Nicholas de Lyra (d. 1340; Paris).
  • Nigri (Schwartz), Peter (c. 1475; Cadana?).
  • Nork, Fr. (1803-50; Germany [actually Fr. Korn]).
  • Norrelius, Andr. (c. 1720; Upsala).
  • Novenianus, Phil. (?) (c. 1520; Hasfurtensis?).
  • Odhelius, Laur. (d. 1691; Upsala).
  • Opfergeld, Friedrich (1668-1746; Breslau).
  • Opitius, Paul Friedr. (1684-1745; Kiel).
  • Osterbröck, Aaggaens.
  • Otho, Jo. Henr. (d. 1719; ausanne).
  • Ouserl, Phil. (c. 1714; Frankfort-on-the Main).
  • Owmann, Mart. Jac. (c. 1705; Germany).
  • Pagninus, Xanthus (b. 1470, Lucca; d. 1536, Lyons).
  • Palmroot, Jo. (c. 1696; Upsala).
  • Pasinus, Jos. (b. 1687, Padua; d. 1770, Turin).
  • Pastritius, Jo.
  • Pedro, Dom (Emperor of Brazil; 1825-91).
  • Pellican, Conrad (1478-1556; Zurich).
  • Peringer, Gustav (b. 1657; Upsala; Stockholm).
  • Peritz, Ismar J. (living; Syracuse, U. S. A.).
  • Perreau, Pietro (Abbé; living, Parma).
  • Pertsch, W. H. F. (c. 1720; Jena).
  • Peter of St. Omer (1296; Paris).
  • Petit, Pietro Giov, de (d. 1740; Rome).
  • Petrus de Alexandrica (Augustinian; 1342).
  • Petrus Montagnana (?) (1478; Italy).
  • Pfeiffer, Aug. (b. 1640, Lauenburg; d. 1698, Leipsic).
  • Pico de la Mirandola (d. 1494; Italy).
  • Picques, L. (c. 1670; Paris).
  • Pistorius, Jo. Nidanus (b. 1544, Nidda; d. 1607, Freiburg-im-Breisgau).
  • Plantavitius, Jo. (Bishop; 1625-48; Lodève).
  • Plato of Tivoli (1116; Barcelona).
  • Pontacus, Arnold (Bishop; d. 1605; Bazas).
  • Postel, Gul. (b. 1505. Delorie; d. 1581, Paris).
  • Prache, Hilaric (b. 1614, Teutschel; d. 1679, London).
  • Prideaux, Humphrey (Dean; b. 1648, Padstow; d. 1724, Norwich).
  • Quinquaboreus (Cinqarbre), Johannes (d. 1587; Paris).
  • Rabe, Joh. Jac. (1710-98; Onolzbach).
  • Rapheleng, Franc. (b. 1539; Lannoy).
  • Raymund (?), Martin (Monk; c. 1286).
  • Raymund de Peñaforte (Dominican; 1175-1275; Barcelona).
  • Reinneccius, Chr. (b. 1668, Grossmühlingen; d. 1752, Weiscufels).
  • Reiske, Joh. Jacob (b. 1716, Zoerlug; d. 1774, Leipsic).
  • Reland, Adrian (b. 1676, Ryp; d. 1718, Utrecht).
  • Rendtorf, Jo. (Hamburg).
  • Reuchlin, Jo. (b. 1455, Pforzheim; d. 1522, Stuttgart).
  • Rezzonius, Franc. (b. 1731, Como; d. 1780).
  • Rhenferdius, Jac. (b. 1654, Mühlheim; d. 1712, Franeker).
  • Ritmeier, Chr. Henr. (c. 1697).
  • Rivinius, Tileman Andreas (b. 1601, Halle; d. 1656, Leipsic).
  • Robustellus, Jo. (1655; Rome).
  • Rönnow, Magn. (d. 1690).
  • Rossi, Giov. Bern. de (1742-1831; Parma).
  • Sacy, Isaac Silvestre de (1758-1838; Paris).
  • Salchli (?), Jo. Jac. (b. 1694, Eggwil; d. 1774, Bern).
  • Sartorius, Jo. (b. 1656, Eperies; d. 1729, Danzig).
  • Saubert, Jo. (1638-88; Helmstädt).
  • Scheidt, Balth. (1614-70; Strasburg).
  • Scherping, Jacob (c. 1737; Stockholm).
  • Scherzer, Jo. Adam (b. 1628, Eger; d. 1683, Leipsic).
  • Schickard, Wilh. (b. 1592, Heerenberg; d. 1635, Tübingen).
  • Schindler, Valentin (d. 1604; Wittenberg; Helmstädt).
  • Schmidt, Sebastian (c. 1656; Strasburg).
  • Schnelle, Sebald (1621-51; Nuremberg).
  • Schoettgen, Jo. Christ. (1687-1751).
  • Scholl, J. C. F. (Tübingen).
  • Schotanus, Christ. (b. 1603, Scheng; d. 1671, Franeker).
  • Schramm, Jonas Conr. (c. 1700; Helmstädt).
  • Schreckenfuchs, Erasmus Oswald (1511-75; Tübingen).
  • Schroeder, Jo. Joachim (1680-1756; Marburg).
  • Schulten, Albert (1686-1750; Holland).
  • Schulten, Car. (c. 1725; Lund).
  • Schulten, Heinrich Albert (1749-93; Holland).
  • Schulten, Jo. Jac. (1716-78; Holland).
  • Schwenter, Daniel (1585-1636; Nuremberg).
  • Scotus, Jo. Duns (d. 1308).
  • Sebastianus, Aug. Nouzanus (c. 1532; Marburg).
  • Seidel, Casp. (c. 1638; Hamburg).
  • Seiferheld, J. L. (18th cent.).
  • Seyfried, Christ. (c. 1664).
  • Seyfried, Henr. (c. 1663; Altdorf).
  • Sgambatus, Scipio (c. 1703; Italy).
  • Sheringham, Rob. (b. 1602, Gnestwick; d. 1678, Cambridge).
  • Siegfried, Carl (b. 1830, Magdeburg; d. Jena).
  • Smith, Thomas (b. 1638, London; d. 1710).
  • Sommer, Gottfr. Chris. (c. 1734; Gotha).
  • Sonneschmid, Jo. Just. (c. 1719; Jena?).
  • Spalding, G. L. (b. 1762, Barth; d. 1811, Friedrichsfelde).
  • Sprecher, Jo. Died. (c. 1703; Helmstädt).
  • Springer, Daniel (1656-1708; Breslau).
  • Staemmen, Christoph. van (c. 1661; Preza-Holsatus?).
  • Starke, Heinrich Benedict (b. 1672, Engelen; d. 1717, Leipsic).
  • Steinmetz, Joh. Andr. (b. 1689, Gr. Knicymtzd; d. 1762).
  • Strack, Herrmann L. (living; Berlin).
  • Stridzberg, Nic. H. (c. 1731; Lund).
  • Struvius, Jo. Jul. (c. 1697; Germany).
  • Surenhuys, Gul. (d. 1729; Amsterdam).
  • Svetonio, Agost. (Italy).
  • Taylor, C. (living; Cambridge).
  • Taylor, Franc. (d. 1660; Cambridge).
  • Terentius, Jo. (b. 1580, Constance; d. 1630, China).
  • Theobald (?) (Subprior; 14th cent.; Paris).
  • Trigland, Jac. (d. 1705; Leyden).
  • Tychsen, Olaf Ger. (1734-1815; Rostock).
  • Ulmann, Jo. (c. 1663; Strasburg).
  • Urbanus, Rhegius Henricus (c. 1535; Germany).
  • Ury, Jo. (d. 1796; Oxford).
  • Uythage, Cn. Corn. (c. 1680; Leyden).
  • Valverdius, Barthol. (Spain).
  • Varen, Aug. (d. 1684; Rostock).
  • Vatablé, Fr. (d. 1547; Paris).
  • Vehe, Matth. (d.1539;Halle).
  • Vinding, Jo. Paul (c. 1633; Holland ?).
  • Voorst, Dick Cornelis van (b. 1751, Delft; d. 1833, Amsterdam).
  • Voss, Dionysius (b. 1612, Dordrecht; d. 1633, Amsterdam).
  • Voysin (Vicinus), Jos. de (c. 1635; Paris).
  • Wagenseil, Jo. Christoph. (1635-1703; Altendorf).
  • Wakefield, Rob. (d. 1537; Oxford).
  • Wallin, Georg (c. 1722; Holm).
  • Walter, Jo. (c. 1710).
  • Walther, Christ. (c. 1705; Königsberg).
  • Warner, Levin (d. 1663; Holland).
  • Weiganmeier, Georg (1555-99; Tübingen).
  • Wessel, Joh. (b. 1419, Groningen; d. 1489).
  • Widmanstadt, Jo. Albrecht (b. 1500; d. 1559, Wellingen).
  • Wilkins, David (b. 1685; d. 1748, Hadleigh).
  • Winckler, Jo. Fried. (b. 1679, Wertheim; d. 1738, Germany).
  • Winer, Jo. Ge. Bened. (1789-1858; Leipsic).
  • Witter, Henr. Bernh. (c. 1703; Germany).
  • Woeldicke, Marcus (1699-1750; Copenhagen).
  • Wolf (?), Georg (c. 1557; Grimma).
  • Wolf, Jo. Christoph. (1688-1739; Hamburg).
  • Wolf, Jo. W. (d. 1571; Gera).
  • Wolph (?), Jo. Hac. (Zurich).
  • Wotton, William (1666-1720; London).
  • Wülfer, Jo. (1651-1724; Nuremberg).
  • Wünsche, August (living; Dresden).
  • Zanolini, Antonio (c. 1747; Padua).
  • Zeller, Andr. Christoph. (c. 1711; Maulbronn).
  • Zeltner, Ge. Gust. (1672-1738; Altdorf).
Female Christian Hebraists.
  • Alberta Katherina (17th cent.; Bohemia).
  • Amoena Amalia (wife of Duke Louis; d. 1625, Anhalt).
  • Anna Sophia, Abbess (c. 1658; Quedlinburg).
  • Anna (Weissbrucker) Urban (16th. cent.).
  • Antonia, Duchess (d. 1679; Württemberg).
  • Blesilla (5th cent.).
  • Calonges, Madame de.
  • Cibo—? (wife of Joh. Verano, Duke of Camerino; 1550).
  • Cornaro, Piscopia Cornelia (Eleonora Lucretia; d. 1684; Venice).
  • Cramer, Anna Maria (1613-27; Magdeburg).
  • Dorothea Maria (wife of Duke John; 17th cent.; Saxe-Weimar).
  • Einsiedel, Marg. Sybilla (wife of Conrad Löser; c. 1670; Saxony).
  • Elisabeth (Abbess of Herfort; d. 1680).
  • Eustochium, Julia (5th cent.; Rome).
  • Friesen, Henr. Kath. (17th cent.; Saxony).
  • Guyenne, De (c. 1625; Paris).
  • Habert, Susanna (d. 1633; France).
  • Lehmann, Maria Barbara (c. 1700; Schnekengrün).
  • Losa, Isabella (d. 1564; Cordova).
  • Louise Amoena (Princess; 17th cent.; Anhalt).
  • Ludolf, Susanna Magdalena (c. 1700; Frankfort-on-the-Main).
  • Marchina, Martha (d. 1646; Naples).
  • Maria Eleonore (wife of Ludwig Philipp of Pfalz; c. 1669).
  • Maria Elizabeth (daughter of Duke Christian Albrecht; c. 1706; Sleswick-Holstein).
  • Molinaea, Maria (17th cent.).
  • Molza-Porrino, Tarquinia (d. 1600; Modena).
  • Paula, Cornelia (d. 408; Rome).
  • Rohan, Anna, Princess of (c. 1634).
  • Saracena, Ludovica (wife of Marcus Offredus; c. 1606; France).
  • Schurmann, Anna Maria (1607-78; Altona).
  • Sebutia, Cæcilia (c. 1683; Rome).
  • Sigæa, Aloysa (wife of Alfonso du Guevas; d. 1569; Toledo).
  • Tanfeld, Elisabeth (d. 1639; London).
  • Wagenseil, Helena Sybilla (c. 1700; Altendorf).
Bibliography:
  • Steinschneider, Christliche Hebraisten, in Zeit. für Hebr. Bibl. i. 50 et seq.;
  • Gesenius, Gesch. der Hebr. Sprache, passim, Leipsic, 1815;
  • Zunz, Z. G. pp. 1 et seq. (re-published in G. S. i. 41 et seq.);
  • L. Geiger, Studium der Hebr. Sprache in Deutschland, Breslau, 1870;
  • J. Perles, Beiträge zur Gesch. der Hebr. und Aram. Studien, pp. 154 et seq.;
  • Kayserling, Les Hébraisants Chrétiens, in R. E. J. xx. 264 et seq.;
  • Kaufmann, Die Vertretung der Jüd. Wissenschaft an den Universitäten, in Monatsschrift, xxxix. 145 et seq.;
  • S. A. Hirsch, Early English Hebraists, in J. Q. R. xii. 34 et seq.;
  • Kauffmann, Jacob Mantino, in R. E. J. xxvii. 30 et seq. (comp. J. Q. R. ix. 500);
  • E. Sachau, Orientalische Philologie, in Die Deutschen Universitäten, p. 520, Berlin, 1893;
  • William Rosenau, Semitic Studies in American Colleges, Chicago, 1896;
  • Steinschneider, Hebr. Bibl. xx. 65 et seq.;
  • Kayserling, A Princess as Hebraist, in J. Q. R. ix. 509.
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