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HONOR (Hebr. "kabod"; Aramaic, "yeḳar"; in A. V. used also as translation of "hadar"):

Either the distinction or excellence manifested by a man, or the mark of distinction accorded to him. "Kabod," when a manifestation of God, is translated "glory" (Ex. xvi. 10, and elsewhere); occasionally also when predicated of man (Ps. lxii. 7; Prov. iii. 35); but when coupled with "hod" (= "glory") it is rendered "honor" (Ps. xxix. 2; Mal. i. 6). From God comes honor to man (I Chron. xxix. 12; Ps. viii. 6 [A. V. 5]; I Kings iii. 13; Dan. v. 18). Honor comes through wisdom (Prov. iii. 16, iv. 8) and fear of the Lord (ib. xxii. 4). "Before honor is humility" (Prov. xv. 33, xviii. 12); the humble in spirit upholds it (Prov. xxix. 33). Honor is due to God (Prov. iii. 9; Mal. i. 6; comp. Isa. xxix. 13; Prov. xiv. 31), to parents (Ex. xx. 12), to the aged (Lev. xix. 32), to the Sabbath (Isa. lviii. 13), and to those that fear the Lord (Ps. xv. 4).

Ben Sira (Ecclesiasticus) enlarges upon the idea of honor: the honor of parents ("Take not honor to thyself by the shame of thy father, for it is no honor to thee"; iii. 10, Greek); the honor of the priest (vii. 31); the honor of those that fear the Lord, whose honor is greater than that of judges and potentates (x. 19-24); the honor of self, or self-respect (x. 28-31, xli. 12). God being the source of all glory and honor (I Chron. xvi. 27; Ps. xcvi. 6, civ. 1), man, endowed by Him with honor (Ps. viii. 5-6), claims honor or recognition by his fellow man. "Let the honor of thy fellow man be as near to thee as thine own" (Abot ii. 10; see especially Ab. R. N. xv., Recension A; xxix., Recension B [ed. Schechter, p. 60]). "Who is honored? He that honors mankind; for it is said, 'For them that honor me I will honor'" (I Sam. ii. 30; Abot iv. 1). "Great is the honor due to mankind; it supersedes a prohibition of the Law" (Ber. 19b; comp. B. K. 79b). "He who seeks honor by the shame of his fellow man has no share in the world to come" (Gen. R. i.; comp. Meg. 28a). "He who honors the Torah is honored by mankind"; "Selfish desire for honor is one of the things that drive man out of the world" (Abot iv. 4, 6, 21). On the other hand, true honor "is one of the things befitting the righteous and of benefit to the world" (Abot vi. 8).

Honor is, above all, due to God, whose glory (honor) fills the world (Ber. 43b; Yoma 38a; Ḥag. 11b). Similar to the honor of God are the honor of parents (Yer. Peah i. 15c; Sifra, Ḳedoshim, i.; Ḳid. 30 et seq.) and the honor of the teachers of the Law (Ḳid. 32b et seq.; Shab. 114a); even if the latter be wiser in but one thing, honor is due them (Abot vi. 3; Pes. 113b); even a teacher who has forgotten his learning is entitled to honor (Ber. 8b). Honor is due to the assembly (Yoma 70a; Soṭah 39b; M. Ḳ;. 21b); to pupils and associates (Abot iv. 12); to the wife (B. M. 59a; Ḥul. 44b); to oneself, through cleanliness (see Hillel in Lev. R. xxxiv.) and proper garments (Shab. 113b), as well as through the labor which renders man independent (Ned. 49b). "It is not the place that honors the man, but the man that honors the place" (Ta'an. 21b).

K.
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