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ADVENTISTS:

A Christian sect. Among the chief tenets of the Adventist faith are: (1) The restoration of the Jews to the Holy Land (see Bengel, "Gnomon on the New Testament"), and their conversion, based on Rom. xi. 25, 26 (Ritschl, "Gesch. des Pietismus," i. 565-584). Hence the interest shown by the Adventists in the Zionist movement, though many believe that the return will not take place till after the Resurrection, basing their views on the passage of Ezekiel, "Behold, O my people, I will open your graves, and cause you to come up out of your graves, and bring you into the land of Israel"(xxxvii. 12). (2) Literal interpretation of the whole Bible, including the Old Testament and the Mosaic law.

The notion of waiting for the Second Advent of Jesus, calculated to take place during the present generation, originated in England (E. Irving), spread over Ireland (A. Darby) and Germany (I. A. Bengel), and became especially popular in New England under the influence of W. Miller of Pittsfield, Mass., the prophet who predicted the coming of the Messiah in the year 1843, basing his calculation principally on the "seventy weeks" of Daniel. A division of the Adventists accentuated the Sabbath of Creation, and the consequence was the formation of the Seventh-Day Adventists. Some insisted also on abstinence from swine's flesh, in accordance with the Mosaic law.

Bibliography:
  • Carroll, 'Religious Forces of the United States, New York, 1893;
  • White, Sketches of the Life of William Miller, Battle Creek, Michigan, 1879;
  • Loughborough, Rise and Progress of Seventh-Day Baptists, Battle Creek, Michigan, 1891.
K.
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