KALONYMUS BEN MESHULLAM:
Head of the community of Mayence at the time of the first Crusade. He is said to have sent a messenger to King Henry IV. in Italy, in consequence of which the king promulgated an order throughout his realm to the effect that the Jews were not to be molested. On May 27, 1096, however, he, together with fifty-three others, who had taken refuge in the bishop's palace from the Crusaders, put themselves to death rather than fall into the hands of the enemy.
- Neubauer and Stern, Hebräische Berichte über die Judenverfolgungen Während der Kreuzzüge, pp. 3, 6, 14, 53;
- Salfeld, Martyrologium, p. 116.