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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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BERLIN CONGRESS – A meeting of the great European powers at Berlin between June 13 and July 13, 1878, to settle questions arising out of the Russo-Turkish war; by it many of the former provinces of Turkey were enfranchised and made independent....
BERLIN, ABRAHAM – See Abraham ben Judah Berlin.
BERLIN, ARYEH LÖB BEN ABRAHAM MEÏR – German rabbi; born 1738 at Fürth, Bavaria; died at Cassel May 21, 1814. When quite young Berlin was dayyan in his native city, and at the same time rabbi of Baiersdorf, Bavaria. In 1789 he was appointed chief rabbi of Bamberg,...
BERLIN, DAVID B. (JUDAH) LOEB – Rabbi of the three united congregations, Altona, Hamburg, and Wandsbeck; born probably at Eisenstadt, Hungary, in the second half of the seventeenth century; died at Altona March 5, 1771. Very little is known of his life,...
BERLIN, FANNY – See Berlin, Moses.
BERLIN, ISAIAH B. (JUDAH) LOEB – The most eminent critic among the German Talmudists of the eighteenth century; born in Eisenstadt, Hungary, about October, 1725; died, while rabbi of Breslau, May 13, 1799.Berlin was the scion of a famous family of scholars...
BERLIN, JACOB – German Talmudist; born 1707, probably at Berlin; died 1749 at Fürth, Bavaria. He was a pupil of Jacob ha-Kohen, author of "Sheb Ya'aḳob," and later (not after 1734) settled at Fürth, where he lived as a well-to-do private...
BERLIN, LEO – Russian lawyer; son of Moses Berlin; born at Vitebsk Nov. 22, 1854; received his education (1862-72) at a private school in St. Petersburg. He studied law at the University of Bern, Switzerland, whence he was graduated in 1878....
BERLIN, MOSES (MOISEI JOSIFOVICH) – Scholar, communal worker, and government official; born at Shklov, Russia, 1821; died in St. Petersburg March 25, 1888. He received a good home education and then was sent abroad, where he studied philosophy and philology at the...
BERLIN, NAḤMAN BEN SIMHAḤ – A polemical writer against reform; lived at Lissa, Germany, at the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth century. His literary activity was wholly devoted to the cause of orthodoxy, opposing steadfastly and...
BERLIN, NAPHTALI ẒEBI JUDAH – Head of the yeshibah of Volozhin, Russia; born at Mir, in the government of Minsk, in 1817; died at Warsaw Aug. 10, 1893. In 1831 Berlin, who was a descendant of a scholarly family, married the daughter of Isaac b. Ḥayyim, the...
BERLIN, NOAH ḤAYYIM ẒEBI HIRSCH B. ABRAHAM MEïR – German Talmudist and rabbi; born at Fürth 1737; died at Altona March 5, 1802. He was the son of a well-to-do and learned merchant at Fürth, who died Jan. 7, 1780, and whom Jacob Berlin regarded as a Talmudist of some merit. The...
BERLIN, RUDOLF – German ophthalmologist; born May 2, 1833, at Friedland, Mecklenburg-Strelitz; died at Rostock Sept. 12, 1897. He received his education at the gymnasium of his native town and at the universities of Göttingen, Würzburg, Berlin,...
BERLIN, SAMUEL – German jurist; born at Bamberg Oct 11, 1807; died at Fürth Dec. 21, 1896. He was a son of Löb Berlin, of Bamberg, afterward "Landesrabbiner" at Cassel, and was educated at the University of Munich, where he obtained his LL.D....
BERLIN, SAUL – German Talmudist, and one of the most learned Jews of the Mendelssohnian period; born (at Glogau?) 1740; died in London Nov. 16, 1794. He received his general education principally from his father, who was chief rabbi of Berlin,...
BERLINER, ABRAHAM (ADOLF) – German theologian; historian; born in Obersitzko, province of Posen, Prussia, May 2, 1833; received his first education under his father, who was teacher in Obersitzko. He continued his education under various rabbis, preparing...
BERLINER, EMIL – American inventor; born in Hanover, Germany May 20, 1851. He was educated at the public schools of his native place and at the Samson Schule, Wolfenbüttel, whence he was graduated in 1865. In 1870 he emigrated to America,...
BERMAN, JEKUTHIEL – Russian-Hebrew novelist; born in 1825; died in Moscow about 1889. He held for over thirty years a responsible position in the employ of the Jewish railroad magnate Samuel Poliakov, and devoted part of his leisure to literary...
BERMANN, ADOLF – Hungarian writer; born at Presburg in 1867. After completing the study of law he became an employee of the Hungarian Credit Bank. Under the influence of his brother-in-law, Joseph Kiss, the well-known writer of ballads, he early...
BERMANN, ISSACHAR HA-LEVI – Philanthropist; born at Halberstadt Nisan 24, 1661; died there Tammuz 24, 1730; son of Judah Lehmann. At an early age he displayed great commercial enterprise. He afterward went to Hanover, and there became associated with the...
BERMANN, MORIZ – Austrian author; born at Vienna March 16, 1823; died there June 12, 1895. Bermann, who came of a family of publishers, was educated for a musical career; but after the death of his father he devoted himself for a time to...
BERN – Capital of the Swiss Confederation. Jews resided within its territory as early as the sixth century, but the first documentary evidence of Jewish inhabitants in Bern is for the year 1259. Though under the protection of the city,...
BERN, MAXIMILIAN – German author; born at Kherson, South Russia, Nov. 18, 1849, where his father practised medicine. On the latter's death Bern and his mother went to Vienna that he might complete his education. The loss of his fortune forced him...
BERN, OLGA – Austrian author; wife of Maximilian Bern; born at Vienna July 5, 1865. She went on the stage under her own name, Wohlbrück, and while at the Odeon, Paris, in 1887, married the German author Bern. She abandoned the stage for...
BERNAL, ABRAHAM NUÑEZ – Spanish martyr; burned at the stake by the Inquisition of Cordova May 3, 1655. His martyrdom is celebrated in a work published by Jacob Bernal (Amsterdam, 1655), entitled "Elogios que Zelozos Dedicaron á la Felice Memoria de...