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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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BERNAL, ISAAC (MARCUS) DE ALMEYDA – Spanish martyr; born in Montilla 1633; burned at the stake in St. Iago de Compostella(Galicia, Spain), in the month of March, 1655, at the age of twenty-two. He was a nephew of Abraham Nuñez Bernal. When only seventeen (1650) he...
BERNAL, MAESTRO – A Marano, ship-physician on the first voyage of Columbus to America. He had lived in Tortosa and had undergone public penance in October, 1490, as an adherent of Judaism. Columbus, by his arrogant conduct, aroused the enmity of...
BERNAL, RALPH – Politician and art-collector; died in 1854. His ancestors were of Spanish-Jewish origin. His father was Jacob Israel Bernal, a West-Indian merchant, who in 1744 refused the office of gabay (treasurer) of the Portuguese...
BERNARD, ABRAHAM – Russian physician; born in 1762. He studied at London in 1789; practised medicine in Hasenpoth, Courland, Russia; became district physician in Shawli, government of Wilna; was subsequently appointed inspector of various military...
BERNARD OF CLAIRVAUX – Church father; born 1091, near Dijon, France; died at Clairvaux Aug. 20, 1153. He was originally a monk of the Cistercian order at Citeaux; but, on being appointed abbot of Clairvaux, he founded a branch order known by his name,...
BERNARD – German poetess and authoress; born at Breslau, Silesia, about 1770; died about 1814. On her mother's side Bernard was a granddaughter of Jonathan Eybeschütz, the famous rabbi of Prague and Hamburg.At the age of about twenty she...
BERNARD OF GORDON – Christian physician; born probably at Gordon in Guienne, department of Lot, France; professor of medicine at Montpellier about the year 1300. His "Lilium Medicinæ" was much read by Jews, and several Hebrew translations of it are...
BERNARD, HERMANN – Teacher of Hebrew in the University of Cambridge, England; born of Austrian parents at Uman, or Human, a small town in southern Russia (at that time Poland), in the year 1785. His father being a converted Jew, he was brought up...
BERNARDINUS OF FELTRE – His Preaching. Franciscan friar; born at Feltre, Italy, in 1439; died Sept. 28, 1494. He was one of the bitterest enemies the Jews ever had, and openly advocated their utter extermination. He traveled throughout Italy preaching...
BERNAYS, ISAAC – Chief rabbi in Hamburg; born 1792 at Mayence; died May 1, 1849, in Hamburg. After having finished his studies at the University of Würzburg, in which city he had been also a disciple of the wellknown Talmudist R. Abraham Bing,...
BERNAYS, JACOB – German philologist; born at Hamburg Sept. 18, 1824; died at Bonn May 26, 1881. He was the eldest son of the ḥakam Isaac Bernays, who carefully guided his elementary education until he was sent, in 1844, to Bonn to attend the...
BERNAYS, MICHAEL – German historian of literature; born at Hamburg Nov. 27, 1834; died at Carlsruhe Feb. 25, 1897; son of Ḥakam and brother of Jacob Bernays. He attended the Johanneum in his native city, where, principally under the guidance of...
BERNBURG – See Anhalt.
BERND, JULIUS D. – American merchant and philanthropist; born in 1830; died at Pittsburg, Pa., Nov. 30, 1892. Bernd was a successful business man and highly esteemed by his mercantile associates in Pittsburg. He was a member of the chamber of...
BERNFELD, SIMON – German publicist and rabbi; born in Stanislau, Galicia, Jan. 6, 1860. His father, who was a good rabbinical scholar and also well versed in secular knowledge, was his first instructor. He took to writing Hebrew very early; and...
BERNHARDT, MARTIN – German neuropath and medical author; born at Potsdam April 10, 1844. He was educated at the gymnasium of his native place and at the University of Berlin, where he studied under Virchow and Traube. After graduating as M.D. in...
BERNHARDT, SARAH (ROSINE BERNARD) – French actress; born at Paris Oct. 22, 1844, of Dutch Jewish parentage. She was received into the Roman Catholic Church at the request of her father. Her early years were spent at the Convent Grand-Champs, Versailles, where she...
BERNHARDY, GOTTFRIED – German philologist and historian of literature; born at Landsberg in the Neumark, province of Brandenburg, March 20, 1800; died at Halle May 14, 1875. His father was a merchant who had been successful and prosperous, but who in...
BERNHEIM, ABRAM C. – American lawyer; born at New York city Feb. 1, 1866; died there July 24, 1895. Bernheim was educated in public schools of his native city and later in the Columbia College, subsequently taking a course of instruction at the...
BERNHEIM, ERNST – German historian; born at Hamburg Feb. 19, 1850. On completing his elementary and preparatory studies, he attended the universities of Berlin, Heidelberg, Strasburg, and Göttingen. It was from Strasburg that he received his...
BERNHEIM, HIPPOLYTE – French physician and neurologist; born at Mülhausen, Alsace. He received his education in his native town and at the University of Strasburg, whence he was graduated as doctor of medicine in 1867. The same year he became a...
BERNICH, SOLOMON – Scholar, poet, and adventurer of doubtful origin, who appeared in Holland about 1670 and attracted much attention. He spoke Greek, Latin, Italian, French, and Dutch with equal facility, and was able to recite by heart whole...
BERNOT, JULIE – See Judith, Mme.
BERNSTAMM, LEOPOLD BERNARD – Russian sculptor; born at Riga April 20, 1859. At the age of thirteen he entered the studio of Prof. D. Jensen at Riga, and at fourteen the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts of St. Petersburg, where he was awarded the highest...