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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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CID, CAMPEADOR RUY DIAZ DE VIVAR – The conqueror of Valencia (1094) and popular hero of the Spanish nation. Lacking money to pay his knights, he negotiated through his nephew, Martin Antolinez, a loan of 600 marks from two wealthy Jews of Burgos, Don Rachel and...
CILICIA – Name and Situation. Ancient province of southeastern Asia Minor, separated from Syria by the Taurus-Amanus range. In native Phenician inscriptions the name is given as or (Lidzbarski, "Handbuch der Nordsemitischen Epigraphik,"...
CINCINNATI – English Jews Settle. Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, O.(From a photograph.)Capital of Hamilton county, Ohio, U. S. A. Its Jewish community is the oldest west of the Alleghany Mountains. In March, 1817, Joseph Jonas, a young...
CINNAMON – The bark of the Cinnamomum Zeylanicum, a plant so called botanically because growing best in Ceylon. A variety often substituted for it, cassia, comes from China. Cinnamon was known in early times to the Hebrews. It was used in...
CIPHER – See GemaṬria.
CIRCUMCISION – Biblical Data: A religious rite performed on male children of Jews on the eighth day after birth; also on their slaves, whether born in the house or not. It was enjoined upon Abraham and his descendants as "a token of the...
CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE – Evidence consisting of circumstances which afford reasonable ground for believing in the guilt or innocence of an accused person. Circumstantial evidence is generally stated to be inadmissible according to Jewish law; but this...
CIRCUS – In antiquity a large enclosure used for horse-and chariot-races, and sometimes for gladiatorial combats, etc. Public games and theatrical representations being such important factors in the life of the Greeks and Romans, the...
CISTERNS – See Well.
CITIES OF REFUGE – See Asylum.
CITRON – See Etrog.
CITRON, SAMUEL LÖB – Hebrew writer of fiction and literary critic; born at Minsk, Russia, May 24, 1862. He attended the rabbinical school at Wolozhin, and made his first appearance as a Hebrew author at the age of fourteen, in the periodical...
CITY – The Hebrews distinguished in size between villages and cities. The individual homesteads ( , Ex. viii. 9; Lev. xxv. 31; Josh. xiii. 23; Isa. xlii. 11; Ps. x. 8; Neh. xi. 25, xii. 39) developed either into villages ( , Gen. xxv....
CIUDAD REAL – Capital of the former province of La Mancha (now the province of Ciudad Real) in New Castile, founded in 1255 by Don Alfonso X. of Castile. Among its first inhabitants were Jews as well as Moors, the former of whom, chiefly from...
CIVIDALI – Italian city, in the province of Udine. It is a part of the ancient duchy of Friuli, now divided between Austria and Italy. Aside from certain inscriptions preserved in the Cividali Museum, which would date the first Jewish...
CLAAR, EMIL – Austrian poet, playwright, and actor; born Oct. 7, 1842, in Lemberg. Early in life he went to Vienna with the intention of studying medicine; but, in compliance with the desire of his relatives, he adopted a commercial career....
CLASSICAL WRITERS AND THE JEWS – The name Ιουδαὶος is apparently first mentioned by Theophrastus, a philosopher of the fourth century B.C. He regards the Jews as a nation of philosophers who "spend their days in discussions about God, and their nights in...
CLAUDIUS – Roman emperor, 41-54 C.E. Claudius was the second son of Drusus, the brother of the emperor Tiberius. Being of a feeble constitution, and unprepossessing in appearance, he was slighted by everybody, even by his own mother....
CLAUDIUS, RUTILIUS NAMATIANUS – Roman poet. He held high public offices in Rome, but returned (416) to Gaul, the land of his birth, after the devastation of the latter by the Goths. He depicts his return in his poem "De Reditu Suo." As a polytheist he was...
CLAVA, ISAIAH – Spanish poet of Amsterdam. He translated from Hebrew into Spanish a Purim song, under the title "Cancio de Purim, Establecido Sobre su Historia, Echo por un Anonimo,y Ahora Nuevamente Sacado del Hebrayco al Espagnol,"Amsterdam,...
CLAVERING, ROBERT – Bishop of Peterborough and Christian Hebraist; born in 1671; died July 21, 1747. He was regius professor of Hebrew at Oxford from 1715 until his death. In 1705 at Oxford he published a translation of Maimonides' "Yad," Hilkot...
CLAY – A word used in the Old Testament to denote several kinds of soil, including the clays of the East as well as the loam of the Nile valley. Clay, in its technical sense, is "a mixture of decomposed minerals of various kinds....
CLEAN AND UNCLEAN ANIMALS – Distinction Between "Clean" and "Unclean." —Animals ceremonially pure and fit for food, and such as are not. Biblical Data: The distinction between clean and unclean animals appears first in Gen. vii. 2-3, 8, where it is said...
CLEANNESS AND UNCLEANNESS – See Purity.
CLEIF, DANIEL ḤAYYIM – Russian rabbi; born in Amsterdam 1729; died there May 14, 1794. He settled in Hasenpoth, in the government of Courland, originally as a jeweler; later he officiated there as rabbi for many years. At this time he wrote "'Arugah...