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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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GINSBURG, SAUL MOISEYEVICH – Russian lawyer and author; born at Minsk 1866; graduated from the law department of the University of St. Petersburg 1890. Since 1898 he has held the position of secretary to the Society for the Promotion of Education Among the...
GINZBERG, ASHER (AḤAD HA-'AM) – Russian scholar; born at Skvira, government of Kiev, on Aug. 5, 1856. His father, Isaiah, belonged to a family of Ḥasidim and brought up his son as a Ḥasid. Ginzberg studied Talmud in a ḥeder, and when only eight years of age...
GINZBERG, LOUIS – Hebrew scholar; born at Kovno, Russia, Nov. 28, 1873. He received his early training in the Talmudical school at Telsh, Russia, under Rabbis S. Abel and M. Atlas, and later studied at Kovno under E. Blaser. In 1889 he removed to...
GINZBURG – See Günzburg.
GINZE NISTOROT – See Periodicals.
GIRADI, DANIEL B. ELIJAH – See Gerasi, Daniel b. Elijah.
GIRBAL, ENRIQUE CLAUDIO – Spanish scholar; born at Gerona Nov. 16, 1839. He was chronicler of his native city and member of several learned bodies. He published the following works: "Los Judios de Gerona," Gerona, 1870; "Escriptores Gerundenses o Sea...
GIRGASHITES – One of the nations which possessed the land of Canaan before the Israelitish conquest. In Hebrew the name occurs only in the singular and with the definite article. In Gen. x. 16 and I Chron. i. 14 "the Girgashite" is mentioned...
GIRTH OF THE CHEST – While among most other races the average chest-girth measures over one-half the average stature, that of the Jews, it has been alleged, does not reach this standard. Goldstein has therefore concluded that the Jews are inferior...
GIRZITES – A tribe rich in cattle and apparel; with the Geshurites and the Amalekites it occupied the land between the south of Palestine and Egypt (I Sam. xxvii. 8, 9).E. G. H.M. Sel.
GISCALA – City of Galilee, not far from Tyre; known as the native city of the patriot John of Giscala. John tried to keep his fellow citizens from engaging in battle with the Romans, but when Giscala was captured and burned by the...
GIṬṬIN – Name of a treatise of the Mishnah and of the Tosefta, elaborated in the Palestinian and in the Babylonian Gemaras. It belongs to the third order, "Nashim" (Women), but occupies different places in the different compilations....
GITTITH – A musical instrument mentioned in Ps. viii. 1, lxxxi. 1, lxxxiv. 1. The word is explained by Gesenius ("Thesaurus," s. v. ) as meaning "striking instrument," but it is now generally held to denote a zither. Rashi, following the...
GIZA (GIZAI) – A sabora; head of the Babylonian school in the first half of the sixth century. In a very old source, the "Seder Tanna'im wa-Amora'im," he is mentioned, together with Simuna, as the last of the Saboraim (Neubaner, "Mediæval...
GLADIATOR – A fighter in the gymnasium or arena. Gladiatorial contests were an aspect of Roman life which was intensely hated by the Jews. In Greek a gladiator is called ἀϑλητής or μονομάχος, meaning a single fighter, and he is also so...
GLAGAU, OTTO – Anti-Semitic writer; born in Königsberg, Prussia, Jan. 16, 1834; died in Berlin March 2, 1892. As a journalist and political writer Glagau had already made quite a reputation when he began, in the "Gartenlaube" of 1873, a series...
GLAPHYRA – Daughter of the Cappadocian king Archelaus. Her first husband was Alexander, son of Herod I. and Mariamne. After his execution (7 B.C.) she married King Juba of Mauretania, whom she is said to have met for the first time during...
GLASER, ADOLF – German author; born at Wiesbaden Dec. 15, 1829. He traded in art wares while preparing himself for the university. From 1853 to 1856 he studied history and philosophy at the University of Berlin. In 1856 he became editor of...
GLASER, EDUARD – Austrian traveler and Arabist; born March 15, 1855, at Deutsch-Rust, Bohemia. After completing his elementary and college education in Komotau and Prague, he studied mathematics and geodesy at the Prague polytechnical high...
GLASER, JULIUS ANTON (JOSHUA GLASER) – Austrian jurist and statesman; born at Pöstelberg, Bohemia, March 19, 1831; died at Vienna Dec. 26, 1886. After taking the degree of Ph. D. at Zurich (1849) and that of LL.D. at Vienna (1854), he became privat-docent of...
GLASGOW – Seaport and largest city in Scotland, with a population in 1901 of 760,329, of whom about 6,500 were Jews. The Jewish community of Glasgow dates from about 1830. After 1850 a site was acquired at the corner of George and John...
GLASS – A fused mixture of metallic silicates, generally transparent or translucent. Its manufacture dates from the earliest times, glass-blowers being represented on tombs dating from the fifth dynasty in Egypt, of the fourth...
GLEANER, THE – See Periodicals.
GLEANING OF THE FIELDS – Biblical Data: The remains of a crop after harvesting, which must be left for the poor. The Mosaic law enjoins: "And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not wholly reap the corners of thy field, neither shalt thou...
GLEDE – See Prey, Birds of.