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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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JOHANNES PAULI – German humorist and convert to Christianity; born about 1455; died at Thann 1530. He became a distinguished preacher of the Franciscan Order at Oppenheim and Strasburg, at which latter place he took notes of Geiler's sermons,...
JOHANNES (DAVID) TOLETANUS – See Johannes Hispalensis.
JOHANNESBURG – Largest city in the Transvaal and principal center of Jewish life in South Africa. The Jewish community there is estimated at 12,000 in a total population of 120,000—the largest relative number, outside of Aden and Gibraltar, in...
JOHLSON, JOSEPH (Asher ben Joseph Fulda) – German Bible translator and writer on educational topics; born in 1777 at Fulda; died atFrankfort-on-the-Main June 13, 1851. He was sometimes called "Fulda," after his native place, where his father was acting rabbi. In 1813 he...
JOHN – See New Testament.
JOHN ALBERT – King of Poland (1492-1501). He ascended the throne of Poland in the same year in which his brother Alexander Jagellon became grand duke of Lithuania. The one-sided training received by John Albert showed itself in his attitude...
JOHN THE BAPTIST – Essene saint and preacher; flourished between 20 and 30 C.E.; fore-runner of Jesus of Nazareth and originator of the Christian movement. Of his life and character Josephus ("Ant." xviii. 5, § 2) says:"He was a good man...
JOHN OF CAPUA – Italian convert to Christianity, and translator; flourished between 1262 and 1269. He translated Rabbi Joel's Hebrew version of "Kalilah wa-Dimnah" into Latin under the title "Directorium Vite Humane"; and his translation was...
JOHN CASIMIR – King of Poland (1648-68). He was elected to the throne with the aid of Chmielnicki, who after the election returned to the Ukraine. To the commission sent to him by the king he dictated that no Jew should be allowed on the...
JOHN OF GISCALA (Johanan ben Levi) – Native of the small Galilean city of Giscala ( ), who took an important part in the great war against Rome (66-70). He was originally poor, weak in body, and not at all eager for battle; but the vices that Josephus ascribes to...
JOHN, THE GOSPEL OF – See New Testament.
JOHN HYRCANUS – See Hyrcanus.
JOHN SOBIESKI – King of Poland (1674-96). During his reign Poland had already lost its prominent position among European peoples, and, except during a few years, her lost prestige was never regained. With the loss of Poland's power came also...
JOHN OF VALLADOLID – Jewish convert to Christianity; born 1335. An able speaker, and possessed of some knowledge of rabbinical literature, he persuaded King Henry of Castile that he could convince the Jews of the truth of Christianity if they were...
JOHNSON – American family, members of which have attained distinction in Ohio, Texas, and New York. The family is from England, the most important members being:David Israel Johnson: The earliest known member of the family; married Eliza...
JOIADA – Son of Eliashib, high priest about 450 B.C. (Neh. xii. 10-11, 22). One of his children became a son-in-law of Sanballat the Horonite, and was removed from the Temple by Nehemiah (Neh. xiii. 28).G. S. Kr.
JOIGNY – Chief town in the department of the Yonne (the ancient Champagne), France, situated on the River Yonne. It had an important Jewish community, which flourished especially in the twelfth century. The "notables of Joigny" are...
JOINT OWNERS – In the Mishnah joint owners are known as "shuttafin." When the joint owners are coheirs the Mishnah speaks of them as "the brothers"; but the relation arises apart from common descent, as when two or more people make a purchase...
JOINVILLE – French town in the department of Haute-Marne; in the Tosafot occur , and other variants (Yoma 81; 'Er. 24; Ber. 8; Bek.32; etc.). The counts of Champagne drew abundant revenue from the Jews of Joinville, who were practically...
JOKTAN – Biblical Data: Younger son of Eber and progenitor of thirteen Arabic tribes (Gen. x. 25-29; I Chron. i. 19-23), many of which—as Hazarmaveth, Shebah, Ophir, and Havilah—have been identified. The name seems to mean "the younger"...
JOLLES, ZECHARIAH ISAIAH B. MORDECAI – Rabbinical scholar and author; born at Lemberg about 1814; died at Minsk, Russia, May 14, 1852. In 1834, after having married the daughter of Jacob Dokshitzer, one of the wealthiest Jews of Minsk, he settled in that city. Jolles...
JOLOWICZ, HEYMANN (ḤAYYIM BEN ABRAHAM) – German preacher and author; born Aug. 23, 1816, at Santomischl, province of Posen; died at Königsberg, Prussia, Jan. 31, 1875. He attended the University of Berlin and then filled the position of preacher in Marienwerder, Kulm,...
JONADAB – See Jehonadab.
JONAH – Biblical Data: Prophet in the days of Jeroboam II.; son of Amittai of Gath-hepher. He is a historical personage; for, according to II Kings xiv. 25, he predicted in Yhwh's name the extent to which Jeroboam II. would restore the...
JONAH, BOOK OF – Biblical Data: The Book of Jonah stands unique in the prophetical canon, in that it does not contain any predictions, but simply relates the story of its hero, beginning for that reason with "wa-yeḥi," like a passage taken from...