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PAPPUS:

Leader of a rebellion under Emperor Hadrian (117-138). He is always mentioned together with Luliani, who was probably his brother ("'Aruk," s.v. ). They came originally from Alexandria (hence their Greek names); but they lived in Palestine. Pappus and Julianus were the pride of Judaism (Sifra, Beḥuḳḳotai, v. [ed. Weiss, p. 111d], where the incorrect cognomen "ben Judah" occurs). They were taken prisoners in Laodicea—it is not known why—but were liberated in consequence of the sudden death of their judge. The day of their escape, 12th of Adar, is celebrated as a feast-day (scholium to Meg. Ta'an.). When under Hadrian the Temple was to be built, the brothers set up exchange-tables on the road from Acre (Acco) to Antioch and provided with gold, silver, and other articles those who were coming into the country from Babylon (Gen. R. lxiv.); in other words, they organized a rebellion. After the rebellion—doubtless that of Bar Kokba—had been quelled they drank no more from colored glass goblets (Yer. Sheb. 35a), probably in token of mourning. They were executed in Lydda (confused with Laodicea), and are accordingly called "the martyrs of Lydda." From that time on Trajan's day was no longer observed (Yer. Ta'an. 66a). The Babylonian Talmud (Ta'an. 18b) appears to mention the same brothers by the names of Shemaiah and Ahiah; but the matter is still very confused.

Bibliography:
  • Grätz, Gesch. 3d ed., iv. 413; 4th ed., iii. 837;
  • S. Krauss, in R. E. J. xxx. 210.
G. S. Kr.
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