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PLEIADES:

The word "Kimah," which occurs in three passages in the Bible (Job ix. 9, xxxviii. 31, and Amos v. 8), each time in connection with Orion, is translated by the Septuagint once by Πλειάδα (Job xxxviii. 31); and Aquila, who represents the tradition of the scribes, gives the same rendering in Amos v. 8, being followed therein by Symmachus and Theodotion. The word is retained in the Targum, which indicates that it was then used in the vernacular; so that the meaning given the term in the Talmud and by Aquila may be accepted as correct. Although the etymology is not altogether certain, it may be assumed that "Kimah" is connected either with the Hebrew = "to heap up," or with the Assyrian "kamu" = "he bound" (Delitzsch, in "Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch." xii. 185).

According to the Talmud (Ber. 58b), this cluster is called "Kimah" because it consists of about 100 stars (). The constellation is in the northern sky, with its tail to the west of the Milky Way (ib.; comp. Pes. 94b). For the most important reference to the Pleiades, which have alwaysattracted attention on account of their brilliancy and number, See Orion (comp. also Jew. Encyc. ii. 249b, s.v. Astronomy).

Bibliography:
  • Schiaparelli, L'Astronomia nell' Antico Testamento, p. 79, Milan, 1903;
  • Hastings, Dict. Bible, iii. 896;
  • Hamburger, R. B. T. ii. 80.
K. L. B.
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