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REZIN:

Last king of the Damascene dynasty; slain in 732 B.C. With Pekah, King of Israel, he planned a campaign against Ahaz, King of Judah (734; II. Kings xvi. 5; Isa. vii. 1-8). The two kings feared Tiglath-pileser, King of Assyria; but before attacking him they endeavored to win Ahaz over to their side, and on his refusal to join them, they attempted to force him into the coalition. Ahaz appealed to Tiglath-pileser for aid, accompanying his appeal with rich presents (II Chron. xxviii. 16 et seq.; II Kings xvi. 7-9). The Assyrian king, who was then in the northern part of his kingdom, immediately marched to the assistance of Ahaz, while Rezin of Damascus and Pekah of Israel withdrew to their fortresses. Tiglath-pileser captured Damascus, conquered sixteen districts with 591 towns, and finally took the city, which became part of a Syrian province; Rezin himself was killed (II Kings xvi. 9).

According to modern investigations, the Damascene dynasty, which was in contact with Israel and Judah during the entire time of its existence, was as follows:

(1) Razon (c. 950 B.C.), the founder of the dynasty, son of Eliadah, and contemporary of Solomon (I Kings xi. 23); (2) Ben-hadad I. (= Bir-'idiri; 885-844), contemporary of Ahab of Israel and Asa of Judah (I Kings xx.; II Kings viii. 7-9); (3) Hazael (844-804), contemporary of Joram of Israel and Ahaziah of Judah (II Kings viii. 28); (4) Ben-hadad II. (= Mari; 804?-744?), contemporary of Joash of Israel and Amaziah of Judah (II Kings xiii. 24); (5) Tab-el? (?-743?), father of Rezin (Winckler, "Alttestamentliche Untersuchungen," pp. 74-75); (6) Rezin (743?-732), contemporary of Pekah of Israel and Ahaz of Judah (II Kings xvi. 5-6, 9).

The sons of Rezin are mentioned among the Nethinim in Ezra ii. 48 and Neh. vii. 50. See Ben-Hadad; Hazael.

Bibliography:
  • Schrader, K. A. T. pp. 55, 56 et seq., 58, 59, 135, 263, 265, 268.
E. G. H. S. O.
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