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WOLF (Hebr. "ze'eb"; for the rendering of "iyyim," Isa. xiii. 22, and "tannim," Lam. iv. 3, see Fox):

The wolf (Canis lupus) is still found in Palestine, where the animals prowl in pairs or droves about sheepfolds at night. As a type of boldness, ferocity, and bloodthirstiness, it is mentioned in Gen. xlix. 27; Isa. xi. 6, lxv. 25; Jer. v. 6; Ezek. xxii. 27; Hab. i. 3; and Zeph. iii. 3.

According to the Talmud, the wolf (, and [= Greek λύπος]) resembles in external appearance the dog, with which it can copulate (Ber. 9b; Gen. R. xxxi. 6); and its period of gestation is three years (Bek. 8a). It is the enemy of flocks, and directs its attacks especially against the he-goats (B. Ḳ. 15b; Shab. 53b). The wound caused by the wolf's bite is oblong and ragged (Zeb. 74b). Although when pressed by hunger the wolf attacks even man (Ta'an. 19a), it can be tamed (Sanh. 15b). For a comparison of the otter with the wolf see Suk. 56b and Gen. R. cxii. 3; and for fables of which the wolf is the subject see Rashi on Sanh. 39a and 105a.

Bibliography:
  • Tristram, Nat. Hist. p. 152;
  • Lewysohn, Z. T. p. 81.
E. G. H. I. M. C.
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