Garland placed on the head as a token of honor. The wealthy bridegroom and bride, on the day of their nuptials, were ornamented with crowns of precious metal and jewels, while the poor adorned themselves with twisted bands of roses, myrtles, and olive-leaves. The Mishnah mentions wreaths made from vine-branches and from ears of corn ('Ab. Zarah iv. 2). When Jerusalem was besieged the Rabbis forbade the wearing of crowns, but permitted wreaths of flowers (Soṭah 49a, b). R. Jeremiah as a groom wore a wreath of olive-leaves, while Samuel regarded the prohibition as including wreaths also, as a sign of mourning for the destruction of Jerusalem (Yer. Soṭah ix. 15). When Rabina discovered Mar bar R. Ashi in the act of twisting a wreath for his daughter, Ashi claimed that women were exempted from the prohibition (Giṭ. 7a).
The first-fruit offerings were tastefully arranged, and the ox which the people took to Jerusalem for a sacrifice was crowned with a wreath of olive-leaves on its horns (Bik. iii. 3). A scholar, on being ordained, was garlanded with a wreath known as "the crown of the ḥakam" ('Er. 53b; Tan., Ki Teẓe, 6). In Talmudic times the cup of wine for grace was decorated with a wreath (Kohut, "Aruch Completum," vi. 189). The "vine" referred to in Gen. xl. 10 is symbolicof Israel, and the "three branches," or wreaths, represent the Temple, the king, and the high priest (Ḥul. 92a). See Crown.
- Abrahams, Jewish Life in the Middle Ages, p. 195.