BANISHMENT (, or , "hiddiaḥ," from ).
In ancient Israel an exclusion, permanent or temporary, from the native land, as a divine punishment. Adam's Banishment from the garden of Eden (Gen. iii. 24) and Cain's from the presence of the Lord (Gen. iv. 16) were of this nature. It occurred in ancient times only as a divine, not as a human, punishment. "Karet" (excision of the soul from among the people; Gen. xvii. 14; Ex. xii. 19) was a divine punishment only and may perhaps have implied Excommunication, certainly not expulsion from the country. To be driven away from the land, the inheritance of
With reference to Hosea vi. 7 (Hebr.), "They, like Adam, have transgressed the covenant," the Banishment of Israel from the Holy Land is compared with the Banishment of Adam from paradise after his transgression, both being, as it were, a divorce subsequent to faithlessness in the conjugal union (Gen. R. xix.). Banishment("galut") is the name given in rabbinical law to the fleeing of the manslayer, in case of an unintentional murder, to one of the cities of refuge (Sifre, Num. 60; Mak. ii.-6). "Banishment as a divine punishment comes upon men on account of idolatry, incest, murder, and neglect of the year of release" (Ab. v. 9 based on Lev. xxvi. 30-34, xviii. 24-28). The Banishment (galut) spoken of by Abṭalion (Ptollion) in Ab. i. 11 as befalling the wise is an allusion to political events of the time. The Pharisees during the reign of Queen Salome Alexandra exerted "the power and authority of banishing and of bringing back [διώκειν τε καὶ κατάγειν] whomsoever they chose," says Josephus ("B. J." i. 5, § 2).
Emigration from the Holy Land, if a voluntary exile, is regarded a great sin by the Rabbis (Ket. 110b et seq.; B. B. 91a; Maimonides, "Yad," Melakim, v. 9-12). See Exile.
- Nowack, Lehrbuch der Hebräischen Archäologie, ii. 276.