CALIXTUS II. (GUIDO OF BURGUNDY):
One hundred and sixty-seventh pope (1119-24); born at Quigney, near Besançon, France; died at Rome Dec. 12, 1124. His attitude toward the Jews was a very favorable one. On entering Rome, after having defeated the antipope Gregory VIII., Calixtus issued a bull which prohibited the forced conversions of Jews. Calixtus said, "From constrained adoption of Christianity, a faithful adherence to that religion can not be expected." He also forbade, under pain of excommunication, the infliction of bodilyor pecuniary injuries on Jews who had not been legally condemned by a tribunal; they were not to be hindered in the exercise of their religion, nor were their cemeteries to be defiled. This bull served as a model to the subsequent popes who were favorably inclined toward the Jews. It was mentioned in the bull "Sicut Judæis" of Innocent IV., and in that of Eugen IV.
- Stern, Urkundliche Beiträge zur Stellung der Päpste zu den Juden, i. 43;
- Watterich, Pontificum Romanorum, etc., ii. 138;
- Vogelstein and Rieger, Gesch. der Juden in Rom, i. 219.