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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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ARAM-NAHARAIM – A region somewhat ill-defined, mentioned six times in the Bible. In the title of Ps. lx., and in I Chron. xix. 6, it is used for the region beyond the Euphrates (compare II Sam. x. 16). It is stated in Judges iii. 8, 10, that...
ARAM-REHOB – A district of Syria, of which the chief city was Rehob or Beth-Rehob, associated with Aram-Zobah as hostile to David. Num. xiii. 21 and Judges xviii. 28 place a Beth-Rehob in the Lebanon region near Dan. Moore (Commentary on...
ARAM-ZOBAH – The capital of an Aramean state, at one time of considerable importance. The statement in I Sam. xiv. 47, that its king fought with Saul, has hitherto been unconfirmed. No such doubt, however, attaches to the account of the war...
ARAMA, DAVID BEN ABRAHAM – Rabbinical author, born in Turkey, 1525; lived in Salonica. When barely twenty years old, he published "Perush 'al Sefer Mishneh Torah," a commentary on Maimonides' Yad ha-Ḥazaḳah (Salonica, 1546-1572; second edition, Amsterdam,...
ARAMA, ISAAC BEN MOSES – Spanish rabbi and author; born about 1420; died in Naples 1494. He was at first principal of a rabbinical academy at Zamora (probably his birthplace); then he received a call as rabbi and preacher from the community atTarragona,...
ARAMA, MEÏR BEN ISAAC – Philosopher and Biblical commentator; born at Saragossa at the end of the fifteenth century; died about 1556 in Salonica. His father was exiled from Spain in 1492 and died in Naples. Meïr Arama, who had gone thither with his...
ARAMAIC LANGUAGE AMONG THE JEWS – Considered Foreign by Ancient Hebrews. Of all Semitic languages the Aramaic is most closely related to the Hebrew, and forms with it, and possibly with the Assyrian, the northern group of Semitic languages. Aramaic,...
ARAMAIC VERSIONS – See Bible Translations; Targum.
ARANDA, PEDRO DE – Bishop of Calahorra and president of the council of Castile in the latter part of the fifteenth century; was a victim of the Marano persecutions. His father, Gonzalo Alonzo, who was one of the Jews that embraced Christianity in...
ARANYI, MIKSA – Hungarian writer; born at Trencsén, May 13, 1858. He graduated from the university in Budapest, and was sent to Paris by the secretary of state for education to finish his studies. He returned to Budapest in 1884, where he...
ARARAT – A district in eastern Armenia lying between the lakes Van and Urmia and the river Araxes. The Biblical name corresponds to the Assyrian Urarṭu, a land invaded and partially conquered by Asshurnazir-pal and Shalmaneser II. The...
ARARAT – A City of Refuge: A proposed city planned by Mordecai Manuel Noah in 1825. The reactionary policy adopted by many European governments after the battle of Waterloo led to the reimposition in many places of Jewish disabilities;...
ARAUNAH – A Jebusite whose threshing-floor in Jerusalem was pointed out to David by the prophet Gad as a fitting place for the erection of an altar of burnt offering to Jehovah after the great plague had been stayed, since it was there...
ARAUXO, ABRAHAM GOMEZ DE – Lived in the seventeenth century. He was a member of a poetical academy in Amsterdam, Holland, in 1682, a good mathematician, and aroused the admiration of his associates by his clever solution of riddles.G. M. K....
ARAUXO, DANIEL – Physician. Lived in the seventeenth century in the city of Amsterdam. In the year 1655 he composed an elegy on the martyr Isaac de Almeyda Bernal.G. M. K.
ARBA – The hero of the Anakim, who lived at Kirjath-arba, a city named in his honor (Josh. xiv. 15). In Josh. xv. 13 and xxi. 11 he is called the father of Anak, which evidently means that he was regarded as the ancestor of the...
ARBA' ARAẒOT – See Council of the Four Lands.
ARBA' KANFOT – The "four-cornered garment"; a rectangular piece of cloth, usually of wool, about three feet long and one foot wide, with an aperture in the center sufficient to let it pass over the head, so that part falls in front and part...
ARBACH ḤAYYIM B. JACOB – See Drucker, Ḥayyim b. Jacob.
ARBATTIS – A place mentioned in I Mace. v. 23 in connection with Galilee, from both of which districts Simon Maccabeus brought back some captive Jews to Jerusalem. Its exact situation has not been positively identified.J. Jr. G. B....
ARBEL – See Beth-Arbel.
ARBELA – Biblical Data: In I Mace. ix. 2, Arbela is the district in which Mesaloth was situated, and through which ran the road to Gilgal (for which Josephus, "Ant." xii. 11, § 1, gives Galilee). It is probably to be identified with the...
ARBIB, EDUARDO – Italian deputy and author; born at Florence, July 27, 1840. On the death of his father he was obliged to discontinue his studies and earn his livelihood as compositor and correctorfor the press. In 1859 he enlisted as a...
ARBIB, ISAAC – See Arroya, Isaac ben Moses.
ARBUES, PEDRO – Spanish canon and inquisitor; called by certain Jews "the creature and darling of Torquemada"; born about 1441 at Epila, Aragon (hence sometimes styled "master of Epila"); died Sept. 17, 1485. He was appointed canon of Saragossa...