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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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ARNSTEIN, BENEDIKT DAVID – Austrian playwright, grandson of the famous Vienna banker Adam Isaac von Arnstein; born in Vienna Oct. 15, 1765; died there in 1840. In 1782 he entered his grandfather's banking-house, but left in 1786 to undertake a series of...
ARNSTEIN, FANNY (VÖGELE) VON – A leader of society in Vienna; born in Berlin September 29, 1757; died near Vienna June 8, 1818. Daniel Itzig, the wealthy and generous banker, and head of the Jewish community of Berlin, was her father. She was one of a family...
ARNSTEIN, NATHAN ADAM VON – See Arnstein, Fanny von.
AROER – A name probably meaning "bushes of dwarf juniper" (Lagarde, "Sem." i. 30), which is applied in the Old Testament to three distinct localities.1. "Aroer, which is on the edge of the valley of Arnon" (Deut. ii. 36, R. V.), is...
ARON HA-KODESH – Hebrew name for the Ark in the synagogue. See Ark of the Law.
ARON, ARNAUD – Chief rabbi of Strasburg, Alsace; born March 11, 1807, in Sulz unterm Walde, Alsace, and died April 3, 1890. Destined for a rabbinical career, he began his Talmudic studies at an early age at Hagenau and continued them at...
ARON, EMIL – German physician; born at Stettin, Pomerania, March 12, 1864. He received his education at the Werdersche Gymnasium at Berlin, and the universities of Berlin, Munich, and Heidelberg, being graduated from the last-mentioned with...
ARON, HENRY – French publicist; born in Paris, Nov. 11, 1842; died there Nov. 13, 1885. He was a pupil of the École Normale and obtained a fellowship there in 1865, but soon gave up teaching to join the staff of the "Journal des Débats," and...
ARONIUS, JULIUS – German historian; born Feb. 5, 1861, at Rastenburg, Germany; died June 29, 1893. After completing the gymnasium course, he entered the University of Berlin, where he studied history, philology, and later went to the University...
ARONS, LEO – German physicist and Socialist. Though privat-docent at the University of Berlin he took part in the Socialist movement, and was in consequence suspended from his office by the minister of education, Bosse, April, 1899. Being...
ARONSON, RUDOLPH – Composer and theatrical manager; born in New York, April 8, 1856. He early manifested talent for music, and after his graduation from the New York high school was sent to the Vienna Conservatory. After completing his course...
ARONSSOHN, JACOB EZEKIEL – German physician and medical writer; born in 1774; died June 12, 1807; obtained his degree of M.D. in 1800; and subsequently became teacher at the Berlin University. Of his various publications may be mentioned: (1)...
ARONSSOHN, JACQUES LÉON – German physician; born at Metz May 2, 1793; died at Strasburg Sept. 8, 1861. His father, Jacques Aronssohn (died 1845), practised medicine at the garrison of Pont-à-Mousson. Aronssohn went to Strasburg in 1809 to matriculate at...
ARONSTEIN, L. – German chemist; born May 25, 1841, at Telgte, Westphalia; graduated from the University of Göttingen in 1864 with the degree of Ph.D. Two years later he became assistant in the physical department of the University of Leyden,...
ARONSTEIN, PHILIPP – German school-teacher and author; born Dec. 4, 1862, at Halver, province of Westphalia, Prussia. Aronstein received his education at the gymnasium in Soest, the universities of Berlin and Bonn, and the Academy of Münster, whence...
ARPAD – A city of northern Syria, the modern Tell-Erfad, thirteen miles northwest of Aleppo. Itis mentioned in II Kings xviii. 34, xix. 13; Isa. x. 9, xxxvi. 19, xxxvii. 13; Jer. xlix. 23. Rammannirari III. fought against it (Schrader,...
ARPHAXAD – According to Gen. x. 22, 24; xi. 10-13; and I Chron. i. 17, 18, the third son of Shem. Bochart's identification ("Phaleg," ii. 4) of this name with the Arrapachitis of the Greeks, an Armenian region, north of Assyria, adjacent...
ARRAGEL, MOSES – Spanish rabbi; flourished in the first half of the fifteenth century at Maqueda and Guadalfajara, Castile. The name is the Arabic al-Rijal (Steinschneider, "Jew. Quart. Rev." xi. 610); according to H. Derenbourg ("Journal des...
ARRAS – Chief city of the department of Pasde-Calais, capital of the ancient Artois, France. According to Gross, the name of this city appears in a very curious Hebrew document (De Rossi, MS. No. 563, 23), which relates that Robert the...
ARROYO, ISAAC BEN MOSES – Lived in Salonica toward the end of the sixteenth century. He wrote "Maḳhil Ḳohelet" (The Preacher Preaching) and "TanḦumot El" (Consolations of God), philosophical expositions of Ecclesiastes and the Pentateuch (Salonica, 1597,...
ARSACES – Parthian king; according to some scholars, the sixth of that name, mentioned in I Macc. xiv. 2-3, as having entrapped Demetrius, who had rebelled against him. Demetrius married a daughter of Arsaces and, according to Josephus...
ART AMONG THE ANCIENT HEBREWS – Material for the formation of an opinion on the art of the ancient Hebrews is extremely scanty, as the vestiges are limited to certain specimens of pottery and of the glyptic art, including incidental references in Hebrew...
ART, ATTITUDE OF JUDAISM TOWARD – Art, the working out of the laws of beauty in the construction of things, is regarded in the Bible as wisdom resulting from divine inspiration (Ex. xxxi. 1-6, xxxv. 30-35, xxxvi.-4), and is called in the Talmud "hokmah"...
ARTA – Chief city of the nomarchy of Arthamania, Greece; situated on the Arta, about 7 miles from its mouth. It is the ancient Ambracia, called by the casuists of the sixteenth century Acarnania, and assigned to the Morea. In 1890 it...
ARTABAN V. – Last of the Parthian kings; died in the year 227. He was the son of Volageses V., whose throne he ascended about 216, after a struggle with his brother Volageses VI. For many years he successfully conducted a war against the...