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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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AREPOL, SAMUEL BEN ISAAC BEN YOM-ṬOB – Commentator on the Bible, lived in Safed and Salonica in the sixteenth century. He is author of the following books: "Imrot Eloah" (God's Sayings), homilies on the Pentateuch (Venice); "Wa'ad la-Ḥakamim" (The Assembly of the...
ARETAS – Nabatæan king; reigned from 9 B.C. to 40 of the common era. His full title, as given in the inscriptions, was "Aretas, King of the Nabatæans, Friend of his People." Being the most powerful neighbor of Judea, he frequently took...
ARGENS, MARQUIS D' – See Mendelssohn, Moses.
ARGENTINE REPUBLIC – See Agricultural Colonies in America, Buenos Ayres.
ARGOB – 1. A district in Bashan which was taken from Og by the Jews (Deut. iii. 4), and together with the district of Gilead, was handed over to the halftribe of Manasseh (Deut. iii. 14). One account of the renaming of the land is given...
ARIA, LEWIS – Merchant and philanthropist; died at Portsea in 1874. Of a Sephardic family, he was trained to business and devoted the fortune he made during a long career to the foundation of a theological college for the training of Jewish...
ARIANISM – Among the Goths. A heresy of the Christian Church, started by Arius, bishop of Alexandria (d. 336), who taught that the Son is not equivalent to the Father (όμοούστος = consubstantialis), thereby provoking a serious schism in...
ARIAS, JOSEPH ẒEMAḤ (SAMEH) – Marano litterateur; flourished in the latter part of the seventeenth century. He belonged to the literary coterie of Joseph Penso, the dramatist, and held a high commission in the Spanish army at Brussels.He attained the rank of...
ARIAS MONTANUS (BENEDICTUS) – Spanish priest and Orientalist; born in 1527 at Freseenal, Estremadura; died 1598 at Seville. Philip II. entrusted him with the editing of the Polyglot Bible which was printed in Antwerp (1568-1572) under the title, "Biblia...
ARIEL – Biblical Data: 1. Proper name of a man (Ezra viii. 16). The name is recognizable in the name of the Gadite clan Areli (Gen. xlvi. 16; Num. xxvi. 17, Ariel in LXX.), and occurs also in II Sam. xxiii. 20, R. V., and in I Chron....
ARIMATHÆA, JOSEPH OF – See Joseph of Arimathæa.
ARIOCH – Biblical Data: 1. King of Ellasar, one of the four kings who invaded Palestine in the days of Abraham (Gen. xiv. 1, 9). The style of the chapter in Genesis is such as to make it probable that the narrative, though embellished,...
ARISTAI – A Palestinian scholar of the third amoraic generation (third century); colleague of R. Samuel b. NaḦman. The latter, commenting on Gen. xix. 24, "The Lord rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lord out...
ARISTEAS, THE HISTORIAN – Writer on Jewish history mentioned in Eusebius, "Præp. Ev." ix. 25, who quotes from Alexander Polyhistor's collection of fragments, a passage from a work of Aristeas (in many manuscripts "Aristaios"), entitled Περὶ Ιουδαίων,...
ARISTEAS, LETTER OF – In the guise of a letter to a brother Philokrates, "Aristeas" writes:Contents of the Letter. "By the advice of Demetrius Phalereus, chief librarian of Ptolemy Philadelphus, the king decided to include in his library a...
ARISTIDES MAREIANUS OF ATHENS – Christian apologist; lived about the middle of the second century. He is described by Jerome as having been a most eloquent man. Both the author and his work—a defense of Christianity addressed to the emperor, Antoninus...
ARISTO OF PELLA – A Christian controversialist who wrote against Judaism in the second century (135-170). He is the author of a "Dialogue Between Jason and Papiscus." The former is supposed to be a Jewish Christian, the latter an Alexandrian Jew....
ARISTOBULUS I – King of Judea, eldest son of John Hyrcanus; born about 140 B.C.; died 104. He succeeded his father in the office of high priest, while his mother (or, according to Wellhausen, his stepmother) was, by the will of his father, to...
ARISTOBULUS II. – Supports the Sadducees. King of Judea; born about 100 B.C.; died 49 B.C. He was the youngest son of Alexander Jannæus, whose political and religious predilections he inherited, while his elder brother, Hyrcanus II., seems to...
ARISTOBULUS III. – Last scion of the Hasmo nean royal house; brother of Mariamne and paternal grandson of Aristobulus II. He was a favorite of the people on account of his noble descent and handsome presence, and thus became an object of fear to...
ARISTOBULUS – Youngest brother of Agrippa I.; son of Herod's son Aristobulus; flourished during the first half of the first century. He was left an infant, together with his two brothers, Agrippa and Herod, when his father was executed (7...
ARISTOBULUS – Son of Herod the Great and Mariamne the Hasmonean; born about 35 B.C.; died 7 B.C. Both he and his elder brother Alexander, by reason of their Hasmonean origin, were educated by Herod as successors to his throne; and for that...
ARISTOBULUS OF PANEAS – Alexandrian Peripatetic philosopher; lived in the third or second century B.C. The period of his life is doubtful, Anatolius (270) placing him in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus (third century B.C.), Gercke in the time of...
ARISTOTLE IN JEWISH LEGEND – As the Greek who most impressed his influence upon the development of the Jewish mind, Aristotle is one of the few Gentiles with whom Jewish legend concerns itself. Some 200 years B.C., the Jewish philosopher Aristobulus, made...
ARISTOTLE IN JEWISH LITERATURE – One thousand years after his death, Aristotle, as his pupil Alexander had aforetime done, began to conquer the East, and finally ascended to the supreme rulership of the entire realm of medieval thought. Many writings of the...