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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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AARON WORMS – Rabbinical Career. Chief rabbi of Metz and Talmudist; son of Abraham Aberle; born July 7, 1754, at Geislautern, a small village near Saarbrück (not at Kaiserslautern, as some writers assert); died at Metz, May 2, 1836. He came...
AARON OF YORK (Fil Josce) – Jewish financier and chief rabbi of England; born in York before 1190; died after 1253. He was probably the son of Josce of York, the leading figure in the York massacre of 1190. Aaron appears to have obtained some of his...
AARON ZALAHA – See Zalaha, Aaron.
AARON BEN ZERAH – French Jew, who suffered martyrdom at Estella in Navarre, March 5, 1328. Banished from his original home in 1306 by order of King Philip the Fair, of France, who confiscated his property, he sought refuge at Estella, where,...
AARON BEN-ZION IBN ALAMANI – Dayyan, or judge, and prominent Jew of Alexandria in the twelfth century. His family name probably means al-Umani, or "the man of Oman" (Judah ha-Levi, "Diwan," ed. Harkavy, p. 180; Steinschneider, "Jew. Quart. Rev." xi. 486)....
AARON ZOROGON – Turco-Jewish scholar, who flourished about the middle of the seventeenth century. He was the author of "Bet Aharon" (House of Aaron), which contains sixty homilies, arranged in the order of the sections of the Pentateuch, as...
AARONITES (AARONIDES) – See Cohen, Priest.
AARONSBURG – A post village situated in Haines township, Center county, Pennsylvania, founded by Aaron Levy in 1786, and named for him. In June, 1779, Aaron Levy bought of a Mr. Wetzel a tract in Center county known as the Alexander Grant...
AB – The Babylonian name adopted by the Jews for the fifth month of the year, corresponding to part of the modern July and part of August. It always consists of thirty days. The first day of Ab is, according to rabbinical tradition...
AB, NINTH DAY OF – The Fall of Jerusalem. Day set aside by tradition for fasting and mourning, to commemorate the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple by the Chaldeans (586 B.C.) and by the Romans (70); a movable fast falling approximately in...
AB, FIFTEENTH DAY OF – Popular festival in Judea during the time of the Second Temple, corresponding approximately to the fifteenth day of August. According to a tradition preserved in the Mishnah (Ta'anit, iv. 9, 10; Gem. pp. 26, 31), on that day, as...
ABADDON – In rabbinic and New Testament literature, the second department of Gehenna, the nether world; almost synonymous with Sheol (Midr. Konen; compare Joshua ben Levi in 'Er. 19a). In Rev. ix. 11 Abaddon is personified as the Angel of...
ABADIA, JUAN DE LA – A Marano of the fifteenth century. He engaged in a project to subvert the Inquisition in Aragon; failing in this, he joined in a plot to assassinate the inquisitor Pedro Arbues, who was killed on September 15, 1485. Juan was...
ABADIAS – Son of Jezelus, one of the sons of Joab, found in the list of those who returned with Ezra (I Esd. viii. 35). In the corresponding list of Ezra, viii. 9, he is called Obadiah, the son of Jehiel.G. B. L.
ABAGTHA – A chamberlain of Ahasuerus (Esth. i. 10). The name is probably of Persian origin.G. B. L.
ABANA – A river rising in the Anti-Libanus, flowing through Damascus, and disappearing in the Meadow lakes. Reference to it is found only once in the Bible (II Kings, v. 12), in the exclamation of Naaman, "Are not Abana and Pharpar,...
ABARBANEL – See Abravanel.
ABARBANEL LIBRARY IN JERUSALEM – A collection of books intended for a national Jewish library; founded by Dr. Joseph Chazanowicz, one of the Zionist leaders in Russia, who devoted almost the whole of his income to the collection of Hebrew books. In 1900 the...
ABARIM – Biblical Data: A term applied to the edge of the Moabite plateau. From its most prominent headland, Mount Nebo, the western part of Judea was plainly visible (Jer. xxii. 20; Num. xxvii. 12, xxiii. 47; Deut. xxxii. 49, and see...
ABAYE – Babylonian amora; born about the close of the third century; died 339 (see Academies in Babylonia). His father, Kaylil, was the brother of Rabbah bar Naḥmani, a teacher at the Academy of Pumbedita. Abaye's real name was Naḥmani,...
ABBA – In Theology: The Aramaic word for "Father," "my Father," which, together with the Greek equivalent, occurs three times in the New Testament. It is an invocation to God, expressive of a close personal or filial relation of the...
ABBA – As a Prænomen: A word signifying "father," used as a masculine name as early as the time of the Tannaites (see Peah, ii. 6; Yeb. 15a; see following article). The name was particularly common among the Amoraim of Palestine and...
ABBA – 1. A brother of Rabban Gamaliel, probably Gamaliel II.; perhaps identical with Abba, a contemporary of Johanan ben Zakkai, mentioned in Peah, ii. 6. Besides Gamaliel's daughter, Abba had at the same time another wife; and when...
ABBA BAR ABBA – A Babylonian amora of the second and third centuries, distinguished for piety, benevolence, and learning. He is known chiefly through his son Mar Samuel, principal of the Academy of Nehardea, and is nearly always referred to as...
ABBA B. ABINA – An amora who flourished in the third century. He was a native of Babylonia and a pupil of Rab. He emigrated to Palestine, where he became well known in tradition, particularly through his various haggadic sayings. The confession...