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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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ABISHUA – 1. Son of Phinehas and great-grandson of Aaron, the high priest, ancestor of Ezra (Ezra vii. 5). Found also in the genealogy of Aaron and the high priests succeeding him (I Chron. vi. 4, 5, 50). 2. A grandson of Benjamin (I...
ABISHUR – A Jerahmeelite, son of Shammai (I Chron. ii. 28, 29).
ABITAL – A wife of David, who bore to him, during his residence at Hebron, his fifth son, Shephatiah (II Sam. iii. 4, I Chron. iii. 3). C. F. K.
ABITUB – A Benjamite (I Chron. viii. 11).
ABITUR, JOSEPH BEN ISAAC BEN STANS IBN – Talmudist and liturgical poet, who, according to statements made by Moses ben Ezra, and according to one of Abitur's own acrostic poems, was born in Merida about the beginning of the tenth century. He died in Damascus about the...
ABIUD – Son of Zerubbabel, from whom was descended Joseph, the husband of Mary, the mother of Jesus (Matt. i. 13). He is omitted from the list of Zerubbabel's sons given in I Chron. iii. 19, 20.G. B. L.
ABLAT – A Gentile sage and astrologer in Babylonia. The close friendship which existed between him and Mar Samuel (died 254) shows that the legal restrictions of their religion did not prevent the Babylonian Jews from social...
ABLITAS, EZMEL (SAMUEL) DE – Son of Don Juceph; born in the village of Ablitas, near Tudela, from which place he derived his name; died in 1342. He was known as "the rich Jew of Ablitas." He had business relations with the King of Navarre and Aragon. The...
ABLUTION – For the purpose of actual or ritual purification, ablutions or washings form an important feature of the Jewish religious ceremonial. Judaism is in thorough accord with the proverb, "Cleanliness is next to godliness" (see...
ABNER – Cabalist and teacher of Isaac of Acco (Acre) about 1150, mentioned by Isaac as a great authority in mystic philosophy.Bibliography: Michael, Or ha-Ḥayyim, No. 28.K.
ABNER – Biblical Data: According to I Chron. viii. 29-33, and Josephus ("Ant." vi. 6, § 3), an uncle of Saul; while I Sam. xiv. 51 and Josephus ("Ant." vi. 6, § 6) seem to show that he was Saul's cousin. The latter view is regarded as...
ABNER OF BURGOS – A Jewish convert to Christianity and polemical writer against his former religion; born 1270; died 1348, or a little later (Grätz). As a student he acquired a certain mastery in Biblical and Talmudical studies, to which he added...
ABNIMUS HAGARDI – See Œnomaos of Gadara.
ABO – Capital of the government of Abo-Björneborg in Finland, Russia, situated near the entrance of the Auraioki river into the Gulf of Bothnia.Formerly no Jews were permitted to live in Abo, owing to the Swedish law of 1782, which...
ABOAB – The name of an ancient and widely distributed Spanish family, among whose members were many most able scholars. The family can be authentically traced to the thirteenth century, and representatives thereof are to be found in...
'ABODAH – Originally the benediction recited during the morning sacrifice while the Temple still existed, and afterward the benediction containing the prayer for the restoration of the Temple sacrifice, recited also as part of the morning...
'ABODAH OF THE DAY OF ATONEMENT – An essential part of the Musaf service of that day, based upon the detailed account given in the Mishnah Yoma of the sacrificial service performed by the high priest in the Temple at Jerusalem. The basis for this elaborate...
'ABODAH, MUSIC OF – By its liturgical position, the "'Abodah" stands out as the central point of the services on the Day of Atonement. The confession of sin being the most essential and characteristic element in those services, a peculiar...
'ABODAH ZARAH – The name of one of the treatises of the Mishnah, of the Tosefta, and of the Babylonian and the Palestinian Talmud, belonging to the Order Neziḳin. It is divided into five chapters. As indicated by the name, it treats of the laws...
ABOLAFIO, JUAN FERNANDEZ – A Marano of Seville, who lived in the fifteenth century. He was among those who endeavored most zealously to prevent the introduction of the Inquisition into Seville in 1480. For his zeal he forfeited his life at the stake. He...
ABOLITION OF SLAVERY – See Anti-slavery Movement.
ABOLITIONISTS, JEWISH, IN AMERICA – See Antislavery Movement.
ABOMINATION – Rendering in the English versions of different Biblical terms denoting that which is loathed or detested on religious grounds and which, therefore, is utterly offensive to the Deity. These terms differ greatly in the degree of...
ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION – An expression occurring in Matt. xxiv. 15 and Mark, xiii. 14 (A. V.), where the Greek text has τὸ βδέλυγμα τῆς έρημώσεως. The Greek itself, however, is referable to a Hebrew expression, , found in Dan. ix. 27 (where the ם of has...
ABOT – The name of a small but highly valuable treatise of the Mishnah containing the oldest collection of ethical maxims and aphorisms of rabbinical sages. It is the last of the nine treatises belonging to Neziḳin, the fourth section...