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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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BLOOD – Blood an Object of Awe. —Biblical Data: The importance of blood for the continuance of life must have been recognized even in most remote antiquity and under the most primitive conditions. Any one could see that the death of...
BLOOD ACCUSATION – A term now usually understood to denote the accusation that the Jews—if not all of them, at all events certain Jewish sects—require and employ Christian blood for purposes which stand in close relation to the ritual, and that,...
BLOOD-MONEY – Ransom paid by a murderer to the avenging kinsmen of a murdered man, in satisfaction for the crime. Among the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic peoples blood-money or "wergeld" was commonly paid, and a regular scale of prices...
BLOOD-MONEY IN RUMANIA – According to the common law of Moldavia and Wallachia, the murder of a person entailed not only the execution of the murderer, but also the imposition upon him, or if he were unknown upon the village nearest to the spot where...
BLOOD-RELATIONSHIP – Biblical Data: Family connection between persons otherwise than by marriage. To the casual reader of the Old Testament, blood-relationship seems always to have been reckoned by the Hebrews from father to son. The genealogies are...
BLOOMFIELD, MAURICE – Professor of Sanskrit and comparative philology in Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.; born at Bielitz, Austrian Silesia, February 23, 1855; emigrated to America in 1867. He studied at Chicago and Furman, (S. C.)...
BLOOMFIELD-ZEISLER, FANNY – American pianist; sister of Maurice Bloomfield; born at Bielitz, Austrian Silesia, July 16, 1866. In 1868 her parents settled in Chicago, Ill., and there she received her first instruction in piano from Bernhard Ziehn and Carl...
BLOSZ, KARL – German painter; born at Mannheim Nov. 24, 1860. He studied at the art school in Carlsruhe from 1880 to 1883, and was a pupil of K. Hoff and of Von Lindenschmid of the Munich Academy from 1883 to 1887. Since 1887 he has worked...
BLOWITZ, HENRI GEORGES STEPHAN ADOLPHE OPPER DE – Special correspondent at Paris of the London "Times"; born at Blowitz, Bohemia, Dec. 28, 1825; died in Paris Jan. 18, 1903. At the age of sixteen he went to France, where he was appointed professor of German at the Lycée, Tours....
BLÜCHER, EPHRAIM ISRAEL – Austrian rabbi and author; born Oct. 2, 1813, at Glocksdorf, Moravia; died at Budapest April 6, 1882. For some years he was tutor in Hebrew at the University of Lemberg; then officiated as rabbi at Osviecin, Galicia, and Kosten,...
BLUM, ABRAHAM – French major; born in 1823; died at Boulogne, France, in 1894. He distinguished himself in the Crimean war in 1854, having been wounded in the shoulder, and received from the sultan the Order of Medidje. Upon his return to...
BLUM, DAVID – German Talmudist of the middle of the sixteenth century; rabbi at Sulzburg, near Freiburg in Baden [?]. He was classed among the best Talmudic authorities in Germany. Among his pupils Joseph B. Isaac ha-Levi Ashkenazi was proud...
BLUM, ERNEST – French dramatist; born in Paris Aug. 15, 1836. The son of an actor, he began at an early age to work for the theater. At eighteen he produced his first piece, for the Variétés, entitled "Femme Qui Mord." His subsequent works for...
BLUM, ISAAC AUGUST – French mathematician; born at Paris in 1831; died there Jan. 5, 1877. He entered in 1831 the Ecole Polytechnique and was graduated lieutenant of marine, but resigned in 1833 and devoted himself to teaching. Involved in the...
BLUM, JULIUS – Austro-Egyptian financier; born at Budapest, Hungary, in 1843. In 1869 he became director of the Austro-Egyptian bank at Alexandria; in 1877 he was appointed state secretary in the Egyptian Ministry of Finance, by the ḳhedive;...
BLUMENBERG, LEOPOLD – American soldier; born in the province of Brandenburg, Prussia, Sept. 28, 1827; died at Baltimore Aug. 12, 1876. He was the son of Abraham and Sophia Blumenberg, and the twenty-first of a family of twenty-two children. Soon...
BLUMENBERG, MARC A. – American musical critic and editor; born at Baltimore, Md., May 21, 1851; educated in the public schools of that city, and later at the College of Loyola. After a thorough course in the various branches of music, he became...
BLUMENFELD, ARON WOLFF – German composer; born at Kurnik, Posen, Feb. 29, 1828. In 1846 he went to Berlin, where he studied with Rungenhagen, and afterward established himself as a teacher and composer. His more important works are an opera entitled...
BLUMENFELD, BERISH – Galician Hebraist; flourished in the first half of the nineteenth century. He was one of the wealthy Hebrew scholars of that part of Poland who contributed much to the spread of knowledge among their brethren, and whose work in...
BLUMENFELD, FEITEL (FADEI) – Russian rabbi; born in 1826; died at Kherson Dec. 4, 1896. He graduated from the rabbinical college at Jitomir, and for about forty years officiated as rabbi in Kherson and in the Jewish agricultural colonies of Kherson and...
BLUMENFELD, HERMANN FADEYEVICH – Russian lawyer, son of Feitel (Fadei); born in Kherson Sept. 2, 1861; received his education at the high school of his birthplace. He was graduated in 1883 from the New-Russian University of Odessa, which awarded him a gold...
BLUMENFELD, IGNATZ (ISAAC) – Austrian publisher and merchant; born March 25, 1812, at Brody, Galicia; died Oct. 2, 1890, at Geneva, Switzerland. He was one of the wealthy Galicians who took delight in encouraging and spreading the new Hebrew literature. He...
BLUMENFELD, J. C. – Polish litterateur and revolutionist; born about 1810; died before 1840. Blumenfeld was one of the leaders of a band of young Poles concerned in the Polish revolution of 1831. The rising having proved a failure, Blumenfeld fled...
BLUMENFELDT, SIMON – Russian calligrapher; born in Mitau, Courland, 1770; died at the same place 1826. He possessed the gift of writing in characters so small that they could be read only by the aid of a microscope. The Lord's Prayer was thus...