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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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BRANDEIS, FREDERICK – Musician; born at Vienna July 5, 1832; died at New York May 14, 1899. He studied at the University of Vienna, and received instruction in the piano from Fischhof, Czerny, and Pyrkert, and in composition from Rufinatscha. During...
BRANDEIS, MOSES – German rabbi and Talmudic teacher; born about 1685; died June 24, 1761, in Mayence. As his surname indicates, he was famous in his time as a Talmudic dialectician, but he left no writings. His father, Jacob Brandeis, was rabbi...
BRANDENBURG – Province of Prussia. In documents of the thirteenth century Jews are mentioned as living in the mark of Brandenburg and carrying on commerce there. In Belitz they were accused of having desecrated the host in 1243; and a similar...
BRANDES, CARL EDUARD COHEN – Danish author and politician; born at Copenhagen, Oct. 21, 1847; brother of George Brandes. At the age of eighteen he entered the university of his native city, and at first diligently followed courses in Oriental and...
BRANDES, ERNST IMMANUEL COHEN – Danish economist; born at Copenhagen Feb. 1, 1844; died there Aug. 6, 1892. He was a brother of the critic Georg Brandes and of the author Eduard Brandes. His avocation was that of banker, but he retired soon from that pursuit...
BRANDES, GEORG MORRIS COHEN – The Martensen-Nielsen-Bröchner Controversy. Danish author and critic; born in Copenhagen, Denmark, Feb. 4, 1842. He graduated in 1859, and for a short time studied law, but soon determined to devote his life to literature and...
BRANDES, LUDVIG ISRAEL – Danish physician; born in Copenhagen Oct. 26, 1821; diedthere Sept. 17, 1894. In 1839 he entered the University of Copenhagen, and was graduated in medicine in 1845. After having spent some time in foreign countries, he studied...
BRANDÈS, MARTHE (Marthe-Joséphine Brunschwig) – French actress; born in Paris Jan. 31, 1862. She first studied design, sculpture, and music, and, finally, the drama. Successful in private theatricals, she entered the Paris Conservatoire and studied under Gustave Worms. In...
BRANDES, MORDECAI BEN ELIEZER – German Talmudist; lived at Frankfort-on-the-Main in the middle of the eighteenth century. Engaged by the Jewish community as "porsher" ( , one who extracts from a slaughtered beast those sinews that are proscribed as food), he...
BRANDON, BENJAMIN RAPHAEL DIAS – Dutch Talmudist and Hebrew author; died about 1750 at Amsterdam, where he was cantor. He wrote: "Orot ha-Miẓwot" (Lights of the Precepts), on the purpose of the Biblical and the Talmudic precepts (Amsterdam, 1753); and "'Emeḳ...
BRANDON, JACOB EMILE ÉDOUARD – French genre painter; born at Paris July 3, 1831. A pupil of Picot, Montfort, and Corot, he entered the Ecole des Beaux Arts in that city April 5, 1849. Upon his graduation from that institution he at once assiduously devoted...
BRANDON, JULES BENJAMIN – French officer and scion of an ancient Sephardic family that went to France from Spain after the exodus of 1492; born Sept. 24, 1833, at Paris; died May 22, 1871. After studying at the Collège St. Barbe, he went to the Ecole...
BRANDSTÄDTER, MORDECAI DAVID – Galician novelist; born Feb. 14, 1844, in Brzesko, Galicia. He received a good Talmudical education, and after his marriage (at the early age of fourteen) settled in the home of his wife's parents in Tarnow, pursuing his...
BRANN, MARCUS – German historian; born in Rawitsch July 9, 1849; son of Rabbi Solomon Brann. He studied at the University of Breslau, attending at the same time the rabbinical seminary of that city, and was graduated from the university in 1873...
BRANN, SOLOMON – German rabbi; born in Rawitsch, Nov. 3, 1814. He attended for several years the yeshibah in Lissa, and continued his studies in the Berlin University. In 1839 he was elected a member of the rabbinical board of his native city,...
BRASCH, MORITZ – German philosopher and litterateur; born at Zempelburg, West Prussia, Aug. 18, 1843; died at Leipzig Sept. 14, 1895. He was educated at the universities of Berlin, Greifswald, and Jena, settling at the first-mentioned place on...
BRASLAW NAḤMAN – See Nahman b. Simḥah of Bratzlav.
BRASS – A composition of copper and zinc. The application of the word in the Bible is uncertain, as instruments of copper and bronze were often used where brass is mentioned. Copper, bronze, and other metals were known to the Egyptians...
BRATZLAV – A town in the government of Podolia, Russia, situated on the right bank of the southern Bug. It was founded in the fourteenth century. It was at different times subject to Poland, Lithuania, Russia, and the Tatars. In 1479, when...
BRAUDES, REUBEN ASHER – Hebrew novelist and journalist; born at Wilna, Russia, 1851; died in Vienna Oct. 18, 1902. Educated on the usual Talmudical lines, he came early under the influence of the Maskilim.In 1868 Braudes became a contributor to...
BRAUDO, ALEXANDER – Russian author; born in 1864. From 1889 until 1892 he was reviewer of literature on Russian history for the "Jahresbericht der Geschichtswissenschaft" and the "Istoricheskoye Obozrenie," published by the University of St....
BRAUN, JOSEF – Austrian journalist, dramatist, and librettist; born at Budapest, May 5, 1840. Braun was educated for the profession of medicine at the University of Vienna, but abandoned his medical studies in 1860 to join the editorial staff...
BRAUN, SOLOMON – French lieutenant of artillery; born at Paris, 1868; died in Togbao, Sudan, in 1899. His father, a poor pedler, observing Solomon's capacity for learning, made the greatest sacrifices to give him a good education. Solomon...
BRAUNSCHWEIG (BRUNSCHWIG), ABRAHAM B. ELIEZER – Reviser of the rabbinical Bible published by the printer König of Basel in 1619; and assistant to Johannes Buxtorf, both the father and the son. At the request of Buxtorf, senior, Braunschweig was permitted to settle at Basel....
BRAUNSCHWEIG, JACOB ELIEZER – German rabbi and Talmudic author of the seventeenth and the eighteenth century; died in Vienna April 16, 1729. Of his life very little is known. He was rabbi at first in Kanitz, province of Moravia, Austria, and subsequently in...