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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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LIBYA – District in the north of Africa. The name "Libya" was often used by the ancients, sometimes to designate the whole of northern Africa (with the exception of Egypt), sometimes to denote a single province west of Egypt. According...
LICHTENBERG, CORNEL – Hungarian aurist; born in 1848 at Szegedin; studied at Budapest and Vienna (M. D. 1873). On receiving his degree he returned to Budapest, where he established himself at the university as docent in diseases of the ear (1883)....
LICHTENBERG, LEOPOLD – Violinist; born at San Francisco, Cal., Nov. 22, 1861. He studied under Beaujardin, and made his first appearance in concert when eight years of age. At twelve he became a pupil of Wieniawski, whom he accompanied on a tour...
LICHTENFELD, GABRIEL JUDAH – Polish mathematician and author; born at Lublin 1811; died at Warsaw March 22, 1887. He was a descendant of Moses Isserles, and, true to the family tradition, showed early ability as a Talmudic scholar. He later became familiar...
LICHTENSTADT, MOSES ABIGDOR – Polish Hebraist and Talmudist; born at Lublin, Russian Poland, July 15, 1787; died at Odessa Jan. 17, 1870. He was noted as well for his charities, especially in assisting poor students, as for his Biblical and Talmudic...
LICHTENSTADT (LASH) – Bohemian Talmudist; lived at Prague in the first half of the nineteenth century. He was the author of "Shesh ha-Ma'arakah," a commentary on the six Mishnaic orders, each order having a separate title as follows: (1) "Derek...
LICHTENSTEIN, HILLEL – Hungarian rabbi; born at Vecs 1815; died at Kolomea, Galicia, May 18, 1891. After studying at the yeshibah of Moses Sofer he married, in 1837, the daughter of a well-to-do resident of Galantha, where he remained until 1850, when...
LICHTHEIM, LUDWIG – German physician; born Dec. 7, 1845, at Breslau, where he was educated at the gymnasium. He then studied medicine at the universities of Berlin, Zurich, and Breslau, graduating in 1868. From 1869 to 1872 he was assistant in the...
LICHTSCHEIN, LUDWIG – Hungarian rabbi; born in Komorn; died at Ofen in 1886. He studied at Papa, and was rabbinical assessor of Austerlitz, Gross Kanizsa, and Esztergom. From 1876 until his death he was rabbi at Somogy-Csurgó.Lichtschein was the...
LICHTSTEIN, ABRAHAM B. ELIEZER LIPMAN – Polish rabbi and author; lived at the end of the eighteenth and at the beginning of the nineteenth century; grandson of R. Kalman of Byelostok. He was rabbi and preacher at Prassnysz, in the government of Plotzk,...
LICHTSTEIN, ABRAHAM JEKUTHIEL SALMAN BEN MOSES JOSEPH – Rabbi of Plonsk, government of Warsaw, in the eighteenth century. He was the author of a work entitled "Zera' Abraham" (Dyhernfurth, 1811), a commentary on the Sifre, followed by Biblical and Talmudical indexes, and accompanied...
LIEBEN, ADOLF – Austrian chemist; born at Vienna Dec. 3, 1836. He studied at the universities of Vienna, Heidelberg (Ph.D. 1856), and Paris, and subsequently held the positions of privat-docent at the University of Vienna (1861), and professor...
LIEBERMANN, AARON (ARTHUR FREEMAN) – Russian writer; born at Wilna about 1840. Persecuted because of his participation in revolutionary movements, he fled to America, and died by his own hand at Syracuse, N. Y., Nov. 8, 1880. He was the editor of "Ha-Emet," a...
LIEBERMANN, BENJAMIN – German manufacturer; born at Märkisch Friedland Feb. 4, 1812; died in Berlin Jan. 15, 1901. In 1825 his family moved to the latter city; and Liebermann, after completing a school course, entered the employ of a firm in London....
LIEBERMANN (LIBERMANN), ELIEZER – Talmudist of the first half of the nineteenth century. According to G. Wolf, in his biography of Isaac Noah Mannheimer (p. 10, Note), he was a native of Austria; Jost ("Culturgesch." iii. 24) says that he pretended to be a...
LIEBERMANN, ELIEZER DOB – Russian writer; born in Pilvischok, government of Suwalki, April 12, 1820; died in Byelostok April 15, 1895. His father was a shoḥeṭ and gave him the usual Jewish education. At the age of twelve he was sent to his uncle R....
LIEBERMANN, FELIX – German historian; born July 20, 1851, in Berlin. Destined for a commercial career, he began business life in a Berlin bank in 1869. There he remained for some time, but ultimately went to England, going to Manchester in 1871....
LIEBERMANN, MATTATHIAS BEN ASHER LEMLE – Rabbi and preacher in Prague in the second half of the seventeenth century; died there 1709. He was the author of "Mattat Yah," a collection of sermons on the Pentateuch, reaching only to Numbers xxxiii. (Frankfort-on-the-Oder,...
LIEBERMANN, MAX – German painter; born at Berlin July 29, 1849. After studying law at Berlin University for a year, he abandoned it and took up the study of painting at Weimar in 1869 under Thumann and Pawels. In 1872 he went to Paris, and during...
LIEBERMANN'SCHE JAHRBUCH, DAS – See Year-Books.
LIEBLING, EMIL – German pianist; born at Pless, Silesia, April 12, 1851. After a course in piano at the Neue Akademie der Tonkunst, Berlin, under Ehrlich and Kullak, he continued his studies with Dachs at Vienna and with Liszt at Weimar. In 1867...
LIEBRECHT, FELIX – German folklorist; born at Namslau, Silesia, March 13, 1812; died at St. Hubert Aug. 3, 1890. He studied philology at the universities of Breslau, Munich, and Berlin, and in 1849 became professor of the German language at the...
LIEBREICH, OSKAR MATTHIAS EUGEN – German physician and pharmacologist; born at Königsberg, East Prussia, Feb. 14, 1839;younger brother of Richard Liebreich. He studied first chemistry in Wiesbaden and Berlin and then, after nearly two years in Africa, medicine...
LIEBREICH, RICHARD – English ophthalmologist; born at Königsberg, East Prussia, June 30, 1830; brother of Oskar Liebreich. He received his education at the universities of Königsberg, Berlin, and Halle (M.D. 1853). After a postgraduate course at...
LIEGNITZ – See Silesia.