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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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MÜNZ (MINZ), MOSES – Hungarian rabbi; born about 1750 in Podolia; died 1831 at Alt-Ofen. For several years he lived at Brody, Galicia, where he acquired a great reputation as a Talmudical scholar. Highly recommended by Ezekiel Landau, he was called...
MÜNZ, SIGMUND – Austrian writer; brother of Bernhard Münz; born at Leipnik, Moravia, May 7, 1859; studied at the universities of Vienna and Tübingen (Ph.D. Vienna, 1883). He lived successively at Rome (1885-88), Milan, Venice, and Florence...
MÜNZENBERG – See Hanau.
MURÁNYI, ARMIN – Hungarian lawyer and journalist; born at Asszonyfa (County Raab), May 8, 1841; died at Budapest April 30, 1902. After studying medicine for three years at Vienna, he took up law, and received his degree at Budapest in 1866. As...
MURCIA – Capital of the former kingdom of Murcia, where Jews were living as early as the period of Moorish rule. When King James of Aragon was besieging the city, he negotiated with its inhabitants through an embassy which included the...
MURDER – See Homicide.
MURVIEDRO – City in the old kingdom of Valencia. Its Jewish community had special privileges, and a plot of ground was assigned to it in 1327 for a cemetery. During the rebellion of the Unionists in 1348, the Jews of Murviedro were...
MUSA, ḤAYYIM IBN – Spanish controversialist, physician, and Biblical commentator; born at Bejar, not far from Salamanca, about 1390; died in 1460. According to Abraham Zacuto ("Yuḥasin," ed. Filipowski, p. 229), Ibn Musa was also a payṭan, but...
MUSA OF TIFLIS – Karaite founder of a new sect in the beginning of the ninth century; a native of Za'faran, a town of Persia; hence his name "Al-Za'farani." He later removed to Tiflis, after which city he was also called.Musa's sect is variously...
MUSA IBN ṬUBI (ABU 'IMRAN MUSA IBN ṬUBI AL-ISHBILI) – Spanish-Arabic poet; flourished in Seville in the first half of the fourteenth century. He was the author of an Arabic poem of didactic character, entitled "Al-Sab'aniyyah" (Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 2095, 4). This...
MUSAF – Additional offering or prayer. Besides the regular morning and afternoon sacrifices offered in the Temple, the Law provided for additionalofferings to be brought on Sabbaths, New Moons, the three festivals, New-Year, and the Day...
MUSARNIKES – Name colloquially applied in Russia to the followers of R. Israel Lipkin (Salanter) in the study of religio-ethical works and in the practise of severely strict morality. Although he was probably the keenest-minded pilpulist of...
MUSEUM ZUR BELEHRUNG UND UNTERHALTUNG FÜR ISRAELITEN – See Periodicals.
MUSEUS – See Alexander IV.
MUSIC AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS – Occasions for Music. The development of music among the Israelites was coincident with that of poetry, the two being equally ancient, since every poem was also sung. Although little mention is made of it, music was used in very...
MUSIC, SYNAGOGAL – Temple Origins. Coin of Second Revolt Bearing Two Trumpets.(After Madden, "History of Jewish Coinage.")It has been shown in the article Cantillation (Jew. Encyc. iii. 537b) that the desire to read the Scriptures in the manner...
MUSRIM – See Musarnikes.
MUSSAFIA, ADOLF – Austrian Romance philologist; born at Spalato, Dalmatia, Feb. 15, 1835. At first intended for the medical profession, he became an instructor in Italian at the University of Vienna, 1855, and subsequently assistant professor of...
MUSSAFIA (MUSAPHIA), BENJAMIN BEN IMMANUEL – Physician and philologist of the seventeenth century, who in his Latin work on medicine calls himself Dionysius; born about 1606, probably in Spain; died at Amsterdam in 1675. In his earlier years he practised medicine at...
MUSSAFIA, ḤAYYIM ISAAC – Talmudist; born at Jerusalem 1760; died at Spalato, Dalmatia, June 10, 1837. He studied chiefly under David Pardo of Sarajevo, Bosnia, the author of numerousTalmudic works; and he so rapidly progressed in his studies that he was...
MUSSARNIKES – See Musarnikes.
MUTUALITY – See Contract.
MYERS, ASHER ISAAC – English journalist; born in London 1848; died there May 11, 1902. After an early training in the clothing business Myers became in 1868 joint proprietor of "The Jewish Record." He left this in the following year to assist...
MYERS, MAURICE WILLIAM – American librarian; born in London, England, Feb. 18, 1821; died in Cincinnati, Ohio, Dec. 8, 1899. He emigrated to New York in 1833, and removed to Cincinnati in 1837. He first studied law and was admitted to the bar, but...
MYERS, WALTER – English physician and toxicologist; born 1871 at Birmingham; died Jan. 21, 1901, at Para, Brazil. He was educated at King Edward's High School, Birmingham, at Caius College, Cambridge, and at St. Thomas' Hospital, London. After...