JewishEncyclopedia.com

The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
- Phrase search: "names of god"
- Exclude terms: "names of god" -zerah
- Volume/Page: v9 p419
- Diacritics optional: Ḥanukkah or hanukkah
- Search by Author: altruism author:Hirsch
search tips & recommendations
MUHR, ABRAHAM – German philanthropist; born at Berlin April 7, 1781; died at Breslau June 12, 1847. In addition to a thorough course in Hebrew literature, he received a substantial secular education. In 1806 he went to Plesse, Prussian Silesia,...
MUHR, JULIUS – German genre painter; born at Plesse, Silesia, June 21, 1819; died at Munich in 1865. He studied first at the Academy of Berlin, and afterward (1838) entered the Munich Academy of Arts, where Cornelius became his instructor....
MUHR, SIMON – American merchant, manufacturer, and philanthropist; eldest son of Henry Muhr; born at Hürben, Bavaria, April 19, 1845; died in Philadelphia Feb. 9, 1895. Muhr was vice-president of the Jewish Hospital, director of the Foster...
MÜHSAM, SAMUEL – Austrian rabbi; born at Landsberg, Prussian Silesia, May 22, 1837. He received his education at the gymnasium at Oppeln and the universities of Breslau and Vienna (Ph.D., Leipsic, 1864). The following year he became rabbi at...
MUḲADDASI, ABU AL-FARAJ HARUN BEN AL-FARAJ AL- – See Aaron of Jerusalem.
MULBERRY – The berry-like fruit of the black or common mulberry (Morus nigra). It is not mentioned in the Hebrew Old Testament, although in II Sam. v. 23-24 "beka'im" is erroneously explained as "mulberry-trees" by the Rabbis and some...
MULDER, SAMUEL ISRAEL – Dutch educationist; born at Amsterdam June 20, 1792; died there Dec. 29, 1862. He was educated by his father and by David Friedrichsfeld, and then studied with his brother-in-law H. A. Wagenaar. His friends were Lehmans,...
MULE – A hybrid between the ass and horse. The Hebrew term is "pered"; feminine, "pirdah." (For "rekesh," which some render by "mule," see Horse.) "Yemim" (Gen. xxxvi. 24), which Targ. Yer., Arabic version, and Greek Venetus translate...
MÜLHAUSEN – City in Alsace. Its Jewish community is of comparatively recent foundation. In 1784 there were no Jews in Mülhausen, and only since 1798, when the city was incorporated into France, have Jews been tolerated there. In 1830 the...
MÜLLER, DAVID HEINRICH – Austrian Orientalist; born July 6, 1846, at Buczacz, Galicia. He studied in Vienna, Leipsic, Strasburg, and Berlin, and became professor of Oriental languages in Vienna University in 1885. He is also professor of Hebrew and...
MÜLLER, GABRIEL – Dayyan at Mattersdorf, Hungary; born Oct. 3, 1836, at Nadas. He received much of his education in his father's (Ḥayyim Müller's) yeshibah, and in 1860 was appointed dayyan of the community of Mattersdorf. He is the author of the...
MÜLLER, JOEL – German rabbi and Talmudist; born 1827 at Ungarisch-Ostra, Moravia; died at Berlin Nov. 6, 1895. He received a thorough Talmudic training and succeeded his father as rabbi of his native town. His next rabbinate was that of Leipa,...
MUNAH – See Accents in Hebrew.
MUNAJJA, ABU AL-FARAJ IBN ṢADAḲAH – Samaritan writer; lived in the twelfth century, probably at Damascus. His father was a renowned poet (whence the son's name of Ibn al-Sha'ir). Munajja was the author of various commentaries on the Pentateuch, which are cited by...
MÜNDEN – Town in the province of Hanover, Prussia. Its Jews are first mentioned in the sixteenth century. When Duke Heinrich the Younger excluded all Jews from the territory of Brunswick (1557), the Jews of Münden were permitted to...
MUNICH – Capital of Bavaria, Germany. It has (1904) a total population of 499,959, including 8,739 Jews. When Jews first went there is not known, but since by 1158 Duke Henry the Lion had made it an important commercial center, the...
MUNIUS, MOSES – French rabbi; said to be a descendant of Löwe ben Bezaleel; born 1760 at Mutzig; died May, 1842, at Rixheim. On finishing his studies at the famous yeshibah of Prague he was appointed principal of a Talmudic school at Strasburg,...
MUNK, EDUARD – German philologist; born Jan. 14, 1803, at Gross Glogau; died there May 3, 1871; cousin of Salomon Munk. He studied from 1822 to 1825 at Breslau and Berlin, and was a favorite disciple of August Böckh. Munk was active as...
MUNK, HERMANN – German physiologist; born at Posen Feb. 3, 1839; brother of Immanuel Munk; educated at the universities of Berlin and Göttingen (M.D. 1859). In 1860 he settled as a physician in Berlin, and he was admitted to the medical faculty...
MUNK, IMMANUEL – German physiologist; born at Posen May 20, 1852; died in Berlin Aug. 1, 1900; brother of Hermann Munk. He studied medicine at the universities of Berlin, Breslau, and Strasburg, receiving his diploma in 1873. Establishing...
MUNK, SALOMON – At Paris. French Orientalist; born at Gross Glogau May 14, 1803; died in Paris Feb. 5, 1867. He received his first instruction in Hebrew from his father, an official of the Jewish community; and on the latter's death he joined...
MUNKÁCSY, BERNHARD – Hungarian philologist and ethnologist; born at Nagy-Varad (Grosswardein) March 12, 1860; educated in his native city and at Budapest. He is a descendant of a famous rabbinical family, among his ancestors having been R. Joseph...
MÜNSTER, SEBASTIAN – German Hebraist and cosmographer; born 1489 at Ingelheim; died at Basel May 23, 1552. He was educated at Heidelberg and Tübingen, and became a Protestant and teacher of Hebrew at the University of Basel in 1529. Münster studied...
MÜNSTERBURG, HUGO – American psychologist; born at Danzig, Prussia, June 1, 1863. After being trained at the gymnasium of his native city he studied philosophy at Leipsic (Ph.D. 1885) and medicine at Heidelberg (M.D. 1887). Devoting himself to...
MÜNZ, BERNHARD – Austrian writer; born Feb. 1, 1856, at Leipnik, Moravia; educated at the University of Vienna (Ph.D. 1877). After leaving that university he continued his philosophical studies at Munich. In 1889 he became amanuensis in the...