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TREVES:

Family which derived its name from the Prussian city of Treves, famous for its prominentmen. No other family can boast such a continuous line of scholars as this one, branches of which have been known under the names Treves, Tribas, Dreifuss, Trefouse, and Drifzan. There exist, however, no means of tracing the connection of these various branches, which even as early as the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries were already scattered over Germany, Italy, southern France, Greece, Poland, and Russia.

Bibliography:
  • Ḳobeẓ 'al Yad, iii. 14, 15;
  • Steinschneider, Hebr. Bibl. iv. 152;
  • Zeitschrift für Gesch. der Juden in Deutschland, i. 311;
  • Gross, Gallia Judaica, p. 242;
  • A. Epstein, in Monatsschrift, xlvi. 159-160, notes 2-6.
S. S. O.

The subjoined chart is that of the Italian branch, which is the only one of which a genealogy can be given.

Abraham b. Gershon Treves (called also Ẓarfati):

French cabalist; flourished about 1572. He was the author of the following works: (1) commentary on the "Ma'areket ha-Elahut" of R. Perez; (2) glosses to the "Sefer Yeẓirah" and to the commentaries of Moses Botarel, Naḥmani, and Abraham b. David; (3) glosses to the "Sha'are Orah."

Bibliography:
  • Nepi-Ghirondi, Toledot Gedole Yisrael, p. 8;
  • Fürst, Bibl. Jud. iii. 444;
  • Brüll's Jahrb. i. 113-114.
S. F. T. H.Abraham ben Solomon Treves (called also Ẓarfati):

Scholar of the sixteenth century. He emigrated from Italy to Turkey, where he officiated as rabbi of German and Portuguese congregations in Adrianople and various other cities. He favored the Sephardic ritual, and corresponded with David Cohen and Elijah Mizraḥi. From one of his letters to Joseph Caro ("Abḳat Rokel," No. 34) it appears that he was a physician also. He was the first scholar to quote the "Kol Bo," and was the author of "Birkat Abraham," a work on the ritual.

Bibliography:
  • Mortara, Indice, p. 66;
  • Zunz, Ritus, p. 32, note b;
  • Steinschneider, Cat Bodl. col. 711;
  • Benjacob, Oẓar ha-Sefarim, p. 87;
  • Azulai, Shem ha-Gedolim, ii. 20;
  • Brüll's Jahrb. i. 109-111.
Aryeh Löb ben Naphtali Treves:

Russo-Polish scholar; born 1848; died 1873; lived in Augustovo. He was a valued collaborator on the journal "Ha-Maggid," to which he contributed articles over the signature "Ṭure Eben."

Bibliography:
  • Brüll's Jahrb. i. 121;
  • Ha-Maggid, 1873, p. 60.
Dob Bär ben Judah Treves:

Scholar of the eighteenth century; died 21st of Tishri (Oct. 17), 1803. Prior to 1760 he officiated as rabbi in Hungary, and from that year to 1790 as rabbinical judge in Wilna. He was the author of "Rebid ha-Zahab" (Grodno, 1797), a commentary on the Pentateuch, in which, through cabalistic explanations, he endeavored to establish a connection between the written and the oral law. He wrote also "Shir Ḥadash" (Wilna, 1800), a commentary on the Song of Solomon.

Treves Pedigree.
Bibliography:
  • Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. cols. 893-894;
  • Benjacob, Oẓar ha-Sefarim, pp. 543, 575;
  • Fuenn, Ḳiryah Ne'emanah, p. 200;
  • Brüll's Jahrb. i. 121.
Eliezer ben Naphtali Hirz Treves (known also as Eliezer Frankfurt):

German rabbi; born 1495; died 1567. He officiated as rabbi in Frankfort-on-the-Main. He was an adherent of Asher Lemmlein, a pseudo-Messiah who appeared in the sixteenth century, and attributed the non-fulfilment of Lemmlein's prophecy concerning the Messiah to circumstances other than fraud.

Eliezer held the Frankfort rabbinate for twenty-two years; and during a ritualistic controversy which took place in 1550 he was called upon to render a decision. In 1558 he was a member of a committee appointed by Emperor Ferdinand I. to organize a system for registering the votes of the Jews of Prague. In 1561 he went for a time to Cracow,where he copied Solomon Molko's commentaries. He was an enthusiastic collector of manuscripts, from which he prepared certain treatises. There are extant several decisions signed by Eliezer, pertaining to the community of Frankfort-on-the-Main, and extending over the period 1556-66 with the exception of the time spent by him in Cracow.

Bibliography:
  • Gans, Ẓemaḥ Dawid, p. 40b;
  • Moses Isserles, Responsa, No. 58;
  • Wolf, in Steinschneider, Hebr. Bibl. 1861, p. 151;
  • Grätz, Gesch. ix. 364;
  • Zunz, Z. G. p. 233 and note d;
  • Gedalia ibn Yaḥya, Shalshelet ha-Ḳabbalah, ed. Amsterdam, p. 51a;
  • De Rossi, Dizionario, p. 520;
  • Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 967;
  • Brüll's Jahrb. i. 105-106.
Eliezer ben Samuel Treves (surnamed Ashkenazi):

Polish scholar of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; officiated as rabbi in Opatow. He wrote several Talmudic commentaries, of which, however, only one was published; namely, that on the treatise Ḥullin, entitled "Dammeseḳ Eli'ezer" (Lublin, 1646). In the same year he published a collection of daily prayers under the title "Siaḥ ha-Sadeh." He was the author also of a treatise on the writing of names in bills of divorce; and on a journey through Belgrade he gave a copy of that work to Rabbi Simḥah ha-Kohen Portrapa, who happened to be there at that time, and who later embodied it in a work published by himself. In 1648 Eliezer approved Jacob Chentschin's commentary on the Masorah.

Bibliography:
  • Azulai, Shem ha-Gedolim, i. 23b;
  • Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 964;
  • Bass, Sifte Yeshenim, p. 75b, No. 106;
  • Benjacob, Oẓar ha-Sefarim, p. 175;
  • Brüll's Jahrb. i. 117, 118.
S. S. O.Emilio Treves:

Italian writer; born at Triest Dec. 31, 1834. He was educated in his native town, and when quite young entered the printing-office of the "Oesterreicher Lloyd" in that city. He contributed to the "Raccolta dei Classici," a work issued from that press and edited by Anton Racheli. At the same time Treves wrote anonymously for "L'Anelo," a journal prohibited by the Austrian government. When his association with "L'Anelo" was discovered he went to Paris, where he was correspondent for the "Crepusculo" of Milan. Two years later he went for a short time to Turin, and then became manager of a printing establishment at Fiume. When this house failed Treves followed the vocation of a teacher in Udine.

In 1858 he settled in Milan and became translator for the official journal "Gazzetta di Milano," at the same time contributing to the "Italia Musicale" and "Uomo di Pietra." In the war of 1859 he served in Garibaldi's legion, and after peace was declared resumed his connection with the "Gazzetta." In 1862 he founded the "Museo di Famiglia," and in 1865 the "Biblioteca Utile," comprising examples of Italian literature as well as various works translated from other languages into Italian. In 1869 he resigned his position on the "Gazzetta di Milano" and founded the "Corriere de Milano," which he sold in 1871. In the latter year he entered into partnership with his brother Giuseppe, and in 1874 the two founded in Milan the "Illustrazione Italiana," which proved very successful.

Treves has written many articles for various journals and publications, and is the author also of several dramas, e.g., "Richezza e Miserie," Triest, 1847, which was well received, and "II Duca d'Enghien," ib. 1850.

Bibliography:
  • P. Wurzbach, Biographisches Lexicon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich, Vienna, 1882.
Gershon Treves:

Scholar of the fifteenth century. He was of German descent and resided in Avignon. Upon the death of Joseph Colon, his father-in-law, he arranged the latter's collection of responsa, Nos. 13, 14, 98, and 102 of which contain letters addressed to himself. During a controversy between the rabbi of Padua and Lewa Landau, Treves was drawn into the dispute (see Moses Minz, Responsa, No. 98).

Bibliography:
  • Colon, Responsa, No. 102;
  • Brüll's Jahrb. i. 100.
Giuseppe Treves:

Brother of Emilio Treves, and with him cofounder in 1874 of the "Illustrazione Italiana."

S. F. T. H.Ḥayyim Treves (known also as Ḥayyim Schwarz):

Scholar of the sixteenth century; rabbi of the former provinces of Cologne and Jülich. In 1577 he resided in Königswinter, and from 1585 to 1595 in Ahrweiler. His son-in-law was Isaac ben Ḥayyim of Ahrweiler. Treves in deciding a certain question was said to have attacked Christianity; and his son-in-law, together with other contemporary scholars, was compelled to give testimony in the matter.

Bibliography:
  • Auerbach, Berit Abraham, p. 23a;
  • Brüll's Jahrb. i. 106-107.
Isaac Treves:

Son of Shneor Treves of Frankfort-on-the-Main. He was rabbi of Kopytzk; but no details of his life are known.

Isaac ben Gershon Treves:

Venetian scholar of the sixteenth century. He was employed as a corrector of the press on several rabbinic Bible editions which appeared at Venice in 1508, and later on Issachar ibn Susan's "'Ibbur ha-Shanim" (Venice, 1579), a work treating of the Hebrew calendar. Isaac was the author of an introduction to Eliezer Ashkenazi's "Ma'ase Adonai," of an index to Elijah de Vidas' "Reshit Ḥokmah," and of additions to Solomon al-Ḳabiẓ's commentary on the Book of Esther.

Bibliography:
  • Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. cols. 585, 2912;
  • Nepi-Ghirondi, Toledot Gedole Yisrael, p. 182;
  • Zedner, Cat. Hebr. Books Brit. Mus. p. 365;
  • Brüll's Jahrb. i. 114.
S. S. O.Isaac and Jacob Treves:

Two Austrian philanthropists who in 1828 donated a fund of 2,100 florins to the Sick Soldiers' Home in Vienna (Militär-Invalidenhaus).

S. F. T. H.Israel Hezekiah Treves:

Ḥazzan at the Italian synagogue in Padua in the eighteenth century, and, on the death of its rabbi in 1782, rabbinical judge there. He was a pupil of the poet Moses Ḥayyim Luzzatto, who introduced him to the mysteries of Cabala.

Bibliography:
  • Almanzi, in Kerem Ḥemed, iii. 374;
  • Carmoly, in Revue Orientale, ii. 182;
  • Nepi-Ghirondi, Toledot Gedole Yisrael, p. 204;
  • Grätz, Gesch. x. 338;
  • Brüll's Jahrb. i. 116.
Jacob Treves (called also Jacob Brisker, after his native town, Brest, in Russia):

Scholar of theseventeenth century; son of the martyr Moses Abraham Treves (Ashkenazi); lived in Frankfort-on-the-Main. In 1680 he wrote an addendum to Shabbethai Bass' supercommentary on Rashi's commentary on the Pentateuch (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1712).

Bibliography:
  • Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 2230;
  • Benjacob, Oẓar ha-Sefarim, p. 609;
  • Sifte Yeshenim, Introduction;
  • Brüll's Jahrb. i. 119.
Jehiel ben David Treves:

German scholar of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; rabbi of Gailingen. He was the author of important notes to Rashi and to the tosafot of the treatise Beẓah (Offenbach, 1717).

Bibliography:
  • Wolf, Bibl. Hebr. ii. 910;
  • Brüll's Jahrb. i. 117.
Jehiel ben Simeon Sofer Treves (Ashkenazi):

Russian rabbi of the eighteenth century; officiated in Tikoczin, Russia. Nothing is known concerning his career; but his "Be'er Heṭeb," a compendium of the Shulḥan 'Aruk, has won the approval of the casuists, and is regarded as a standard work on Jewish law. Certain eminent Talmudists, however (Jacob Reischer and Raphael Meisels, for example), have pointed out the author's imprudence in attacking Moses Isserles in an unjustifiable manner ("Shebut Ya'aḳob," iii., No. 41; introduction to the "Tosefet Shabbat").

Bibliography:
  • Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 1242;
  • Azulai, Shem ha-Gedolim, ii. 12;
  • Benjacob, Oẓar ha-Sefarim, p. 64;
  • Brüll's Jahrb. i. 119-120.
S. S. O.Johanan ben Mattithiah Treves:

Chief rabbi of France from about 1385 to 1394; died in Italy July 21, 1439. After having received his rabbinical diploma from his father, who was chief rabbi of France, he married the daughter of the rich and influential Manessier de Vesoul, and filled the position of rabbi in a provincial town. On the death of his father he returned to Paris and was appointed, by agreement of Charles VI. with the community, to the chief rabbinate.

During the last years of his incumbency he suffered much persecution at the hands of Isaiah ben Abba Mari (called also "Astruc of Savoy"), a former pupil of his father. Being well versed in rabbinical literature, Isaiah arrogated to himself, with the approbation of Meïr ben Baruch of Vienna, the right to ordain French rabbis, and endeavored by all possible means to undermine Johanan's authority. The latter applied for aid to Ḥasdai Crescas and Isaac ben Sheshet, who pronounced themselves in favor of the persecuted rabbi, blaming both Isaiah and his supporter Meïr ben Baruch ("She'elot u-Teshubot Ribash," No. 270). The quarrels, however, ceased only with the expulsion of the Jews from France in 1394. Johanan then settled in Italy, where he remained until his death.

Johanan was one of the most eminent rabbinical authorities of his time; and his halakic decisions were often cited ("Sha'are Dura," see Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 690). From Italy he carried on a scientific correspondence with Jacob Mölln (MaHaRIL). A responsum of his on the prayers of orphans for their deceased parents, and a letter addressed to the community of Padua, are still extant in manuscript in the Florence Library (Bisconi, "Bibliothecæ Hebraicæ Florentinæ Catalogus," p. 426).

Bibliography:
  • Rieti, Miḳdash Me'aṭ, p. 104;
  • Lebrecht, Handschriften und die Ersten Ausgaben des Talmuds, p. 57, note 2;
  • Carmoly, in Arch. Isr. 1856, p. 262;
  • Brüll's Jahrb. i. 95 et seq.;
  • Gross, Gallia Judaica, p. 534.
G. I. Br.Joseph ben Hirz Treves:

German scholar; born in 1490. Together with his brother Eliezer he published his father's commentary on the prayer-book, to which he added an introduction and glosses. He took part in the publication of the mystagogic Midrash on Ruth, which appeared under the title "Tappuḥe Zahab," or "Yesod Shirim" (Thingen, 1560; Cracow, 1569).

Bibliography:
  • Brüll's Jạhrb. i. 104-105 and note 76.
Joseph ben Johanan Treves I. (surnamed ha-Gadol = "the Great"):

First bearer of the name of Treves. He flourished in the fourteenth century, and, according to Zunz ("Z. G." p. 173), was rabbi in Paris. Brüll, however ("Jahrb." i. 90), refers to him as rabbi of Marseilles about 1343. His wife was well versed in Jewish literature, and explained several Talmudical passages; and when later she with her sons took up her residence in Paris the whole family was exempted from wearing the Jewish badge.

Bibliography:
  • Zunz, Z. G. p. 173;
  • Grätz, Gesch. viii. 8-9;
  • Isaac ben Sheshet, Responsa, No. 271;
  • Isaac de Lattes, Responsa, p. 88, Vienna, 1860;
  • Carmoly, in Revue Orientale, ii. 114;
  • Brüll's Jahrb. i. 90-91.
Joseph ben Lipmann Eliezer Treves (surnamed Ashkenazi):

Rabbi of the seventeenth century; officiated in Prossnitz, Moravia. He edited a brief abstract of Jacob Weil's "Hilkot Sheḥiṭah" (Amsterdam, 1660), and wrote an elegiac poem ("ḳinah") on the destruction of Kremsir by the Swedes in 1643 and on the devastations which took place in Poland and Lithuania. The poem appeared in 1648.

Bibliography:
  • Zunz, Literaturgesch. p. 435;
  • Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 1456.
Joseph ben Mattithiah Treves:

Brother of Johanan Treves; scholar and liturgical poet of the fifteenth century; died on the Ninth of Ab, 1429. At an early age he emigrated to Italy, and there wrote the following liturgical poems: a yoẓer for the Sabbath preceding New-Year; "Silluḳ," consisting of three parts and containing exhortations to repentance; and "Tokaḥah," a prayer written in the form of a dialogue between the living and the dead. In Italy he had copies made of several writings, of which one, of the "Sefer ha-Nayyar," written in 1392, is still extant.

Bibliography:
  • Zunz, Literaturgesch. p. 370;
  • idem, Ritus, p. 31;
  • Brüll's Jahrb. i. 99.
Joseph ben Mattithiah Treves:

Rabbi of Savigliano, Italy, in the sixteenth century. In the divorce proceedings instituted by the physician Joseph Tamari of Venice against his son-in-law Samuel Venturozzo of Perugia, Joseph sided with the latter. Of his writings only a responsum has appeared in print (in Lampronti's "Paḥad Yiẓḥaḳ," i. 105a). A commentary by him on the first chapter of Genesis, and a treatise of his on the Talmudic proverb "An old man in the house is a burden; anold woman, a treasure" ('Ar. 19a), are extant in manuscript.

Bibliography:
  • Nepi-Ghirondi, Toledot Gedole Yisrael, p. 161;
  • Mortara, Indice, s.v. Treves;
  • Zunz, Ha-Palit, pp. 22-23.
Levi ben Jacob Treves (surnamed Ẓarfati):

French scholar of the sixteenth century. He was the first who declared it permissible at the reading from the Law to call up before any Cohen who might be present an Israelite who paid for the privilege. In the course of time this seems to have become customary in several places; for even in the eighteenth century German casuists protested vigorously against it. Levi is probably identical with the Levi ben Jacob who copied Abravanel's commentary on Isaiah, and who, at an advanced age, emigrated to Jerusalem.

Bibliography:
  • Ibn Yaḥya, Shalshelet ha-Ḳabbalah, ed. Amsterdam, p. 48b;
  • Ḥayyim Benveniste, Keneset ha-Gedolah on Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, No. 135;
  • Ezekiel Katzenellenbogen, Keneset Yeḥezḳel, No. 7;
  • Steinschneider, Hebr. Bibl. 1871, p. 135;
  • Brüll's Jahrb. i. 115.
Mattithiah ben Joseph Treves (called the Provençal):

French scholar; chief rabbi of Paris; born there about 1325; died about 1387. He was educated by his father, and later studied under Nissim ben Reuben and Perez Cohen ben Isaac. He lived in various Spanish cities until 1361, when he returned to Paris; and, as at that time there were only a few scholars in France, he founded a seminary in the French capital. Through the intercession of his brother-in-law, Procurator Manessier de Vesoul, Charles V. in 1363 appointed him chief rabbi of Paris.

Mattithiah collected books, and also engaged in literary pursuits. A responsum signed by him is extant in the Paris Library (Codex 676, No. 5). He was the author of a work on Talmudic methodology, fragments of which have been preserved in Joseph ibn Verga's "She'erit Yosef" (ed. Mantua, pp. 3b, 4a). He is said to have been styled "Ha-Parnas," and to have composed several liturgical poems, among which were one for the eve of the Day of Atonement, and one—a penitential prayer in twenty stanzas—treating of the Ten Martyrs. He is the alleged author of a work entitled "Eben Boḥan." A manuscript copy of the Talmud, now in the Royal Library, Munich, and which was made by a German copyist for Benjamin Josiphiah, was at one time in the possession of Mattithiah.

Bibliography:
  • Gross, Gallia Judaica, pp. 532-534;
  • Judah ibn Verga, Shebeṭ Yehudah, ed. Amsterdam, p. 50;
  • Zunz, Literaturgesch. p. 368;
  • Ibn Yaḥya, Shalshelet ha-Ḳabbalah, ed. Zolkiev, p. 48a;
  • Bass, Sifte Yeshenim, x., No. 9;
  • Heilprin, Seder ha-Dorot, ii. 327;
  • Dukes, in Ḳobeẓ, Introduction, p. 6;
  • Rabbinovicz, Diḳduḳe Soferim, i., Introduction, pp. 27-35;
  • Brüll's Jahrb. i. 91 et seq.
Menahem ben Abraham Treves (Dreifuss):

Rabbi in Sulzburg; died 1857. He was the author of "Oraḥ Mesharim" (Mühlhausen, 1858; 2d ed., Mayence, 1878), treating of the dogmas of faith.

Bibliography:
  • Zedner, Cat. Hebr. Books Brit. Mus. p. 761;
  • Benjacob, Oẓar ha-Sefarim, p. 50;
  • Zeitlin, Bibl. Post-Mendels. p. 398;
  • Brüll's Jahrb. i. 122.
S. S. O.Michael Treves:

Italian engineer of the nineteenth century; lived in Venice. He is the author of "Sulla Perforazione Meccanica delle Ferriere ed in Particolare sul Gigantesco Traforo delle Alpi Cozie dette del Montcenisio," Venice, 1864; "Di Alcuni Errori Economici . . . della Veneta Industria Vetraria," ib. 1864; "Pensieri sull' Avvenire del Commercio e dell' Industria in Italia," ib. 1864; "Lezioni Popolari Presso l'Ateneo Veneto," etc., ib. 1865.

Bibliography:
  • Fürst, Bibl. Jud. iii. 444;
  • Wurzbach, Biographisches Lexicon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich, Vienna, 1882.
S. F. T. H.Mordecai Treves:

Italian scholar of the fourteenth century. He was the author of a historical work treating of the seliḥah poets, in the introduction to which he tells of the persecutions of 1349. He mentions a town named Heila (), where Mar Zuṭra was buried, and which contained large institutions of learning. From this, as well as from the circumstance that Treves confuses the names of the seliḥah poets, Zunz deduces that he failed to consult historical sources.

Bibliography:
  • Zunz, Literaturgesch. pp. 625-627;
  • Brüll's Jahrb. i. 115.
Moses ben Jacob Treves:

Venetian rabbi and scholar of the seventeenth century. His father was a friend of David de Pomis. From 1648 he maintained a regular correspondence with Samuel Aboab. In 1661 he wrote a poem in honor of Yom-Ṭob Valvason, the founder of a bet ha-midrash in Venice; this poem was published in "Hed Urim" (Venice, 1661). In 1668 he was a member of the rabbinical committee of Venice before which the itinerant prophet Nathan of Gaza was arraigned. In 1670 he sanctioned the publication of Solomon Rocca's "Kawwanat Shelomoh," a cabalistic commentary on the prayers.

Bibliography:
  • Debar Shemu'el, No. 375;
  • Emden, Torat ha-Ḳena'ot, ed. Lemberg, No. 67;
  • Nepi-Ghirondi, Toledot Gedole Yisrael, p. 245;
  • Mortara, Indice, p. 66;
  • Zedner, Cat. Hebr. Books Brit. Mus. p. 786;
  • Brüll's Jahrb. i. 115-116.
Naphtali Hirz Treves:

Younger brother of Eliezer ben Samuel Treves (Ashkenazi). He held an important rabbinate in Poland, but no details of his life and literary activity are known.

Naphtali Hirz ben Eliezer Treves:

Cabalist and scholar of the sixteenth century; officiated as ḥazzan in Frankfort-on-the-Main. He was the author of "Perush" (1560), a famous cabalistic commentary on the prayer-book; and probably also of "Naftule Elohim" (Heddernheim, 1546), an index to Baḥya ben Asher's commentary on the Pentateuch. The preface to the "Naftule Elohim" consists partly of the result of private studies and partly of quotations from other cabalistic works. Treves wrote, too, a supercommentary on Rashi, which is still extant. Naphtali Hirz engaged in disputations with Christian scholars; and he made comments on the pronunciation of German. He is especially important for his accounts of Jewish customs and ceremonies.

Bibliography:
  • Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. cols. 2028-2030;
  • Nepi-Ghirondi, Toledot Gedole Yisrael, p. 94;
  • Conforte, Ḳore ha-Dorot, p. 27a;
  • Jost's Annalen, ii. 162;
  • Zunz, Z. G. p. 190;
  • Gans, Ẓemaḥ Dawid, p. 406, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1692;
  • Azulai, Shem ha-Gedolim, ii. 92a;
  • Zunz, in Steinschneider, Hebr. Bibl. x. 134;
  • Brüll's Jahrb. i. 101-104.
Raphael ben Baruch Treves:

Italian scholar of the seventeenth century. He was the author of a commentary on the Song of Solomon, which, togetherwith some of his Talmudic decisions, was printed in Constantinople in 1743. This commentary is written in the style used by the philosophers of the early Middle Ages, and follows the methods known as "PaRDeS" (the initials of "Peshaṭ," "Remez," "Derash," and "Sod"). Raphael affixed his approbation to Elijah ha-Kohen's "Shebeṭ Musar" (Smyrna, 1667).

Raphael ben Baruch must not be confounded with the Raphael Treves who, in the beginning of the eighteenth century, owned a printing establishment in Constantinople, from which R. Nissim's novellæ to Giṭṭin were issued.

Bibliography:
  • Zedner, Cat. Hebr. Books Brit. Mus. p. 761;
  • Azulai, Shem ha-Gedolim, ii. 29a;
  • Benjacob, Oẓar ha-Sefarim, p. 108;
  • Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 3024;
  • idem, Jüdische Typographie, in Ersch and Gruber, Encyc. section ii., part 28, p. 63b;
  • Brüll's Jahrb. i. 117.
Raphael Joseph ben Johanan Treves:

Rabbi of Ferrara in the sixteenth century. Of his works only two responsa are extant, one treating of the legality of the levirate marriage, and the other of the permissibility of business partnerships between Jews and Christians when the latter attend to business on Saturdays and Jewish holy days. Treves is especially known as a corrector of the press in Foa's printing establishment at Sabbionetta. He wrote encomiums on Maimonides' "Moreh," and Meïr Me'iri's "Yaïr Natib," which appeared in 1553; and he supplied marginal glosses to Abraham ben Isaac ha-Levi's commentary on the Song of Solomon (1558).

In the Tamari-Venturozzo case Treves played a double rôle, for after having signed the sentence of excommunication against Samuel (1566), he appeared as a witness for the latter.

Bibliography:
  • Nepi-Ghirondi, Toledot Gedole Yisrael, p. 307;
  • Lampronti, Paḥad Yiẓḥaḳ, iii., part 2, pp. 21-23;
  • Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 2129;
  • Mosè, v. 125, 231, 232; vi. 268;
  • Brüll's Jahrb. i. 113.
S. S. O.Sabbato Graziado Treves:

Austrian rabbi; born at Vercelli in Piedmont about 1780; died at Turin June 25, 1856. Instructed by his father, who was a rabbi, he himself became, about 1800, a rabbi in Asti, where he remained until 1820, when he became chief rabbi at Turin. This office he held until 1833, when he was called to Triest, where he officiated during the remainder of his life.

S. F. T. H.Samuel ben Eliezer Treves (surnamed Ashkenazi):

Rabbi of Opatow in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. He was the author of novellæ ("ḥiddushim") on the treatises Ketubot and Ḳiddushin (Prossnitz, 1600-2), consisting of abstracts of the works of Joseph ibn Leb, Samuel di Medina, and Solomon Cohen. He appears to have settled permanently in Moravia toward the close of his life.

Bibliography:
  • Benjacob, Oẓar ha-Sefarim, p. 183;
  • Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 2424;
  • idem, Jüdische Typographie, in Ersch and Gruber, Encyc. ii. 55;
  • Wolf, Bibl. Hebr. i. 1089;
  • Brüll's Jahrb. i. 118, note 167.
Samuel Isaac Treves:

Italian scholar of the eighteenth century. He published a work entitled "Ḥuṭ ha-Meshullash" (Leghorn, 1876), and consisting of songs, elegies, and lyric poems.

Bibliography:
  • Zeitlin, Bibl. Post-Mendels. p. 398.
Shneor ben Joseph Joel Treves:

Rabbi of Frankfort-on-the-Main in the seventeenth century. He was the author of a Biblical commentary entitled "Ḥibbur," which was known in Russia in the eighteenth century. With him originated the often-mentioned custom followed by the Treves family of not partaking of a meal in the tabernacle on the eve preceding Shemini 'Aẓeret.

Bibliography:
  • Fuenn, Ḳiryah Ne'emanah, pp. 172, 200, 284, 287;
  • Brüll's Jahrb. i. 119;
  • Epstein, in Monatsschrift, xlvi. 159-160.
Simeon Treves:

Son of Shneor ben Joseph Joel Treves. He was secretary to the community of Frankfort-on-the-Main.

S. S. O.Virginia Treves (née Tedeschi):

Italian author; born at Verona; wife of Giuseppe Treves. She contributed to the "Illustrazione Italiana" under the nom de plume "Cordelia," and was the author of "Il Regno della Donna" (Milan, 1879) and "Prime Battaglie" (ib. 1881).

Bibliography:
  • Wurzbach, Biographisches Lexicon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich, Vienna, 1882.
S. F. T. H.Ẓebi Hirsch Treves:

Scholar in Wilna; son of Zeeb Wolf Treves,

Zeeb Wolf ben Jacob Treves:

Scholar of the eighteenth century. He lived in Wilna; and his signature appears attached to rabbinical decisions of the period.

Bibliography:
  • Fuenn, Ḳiryah Ne'emanah, pp. 122, 196;
  • Brüll's Jahrb. i. 121.
S. S. O.
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