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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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ANGER – A violent passion aroused by some wrong experienced; vengeance is sought upon the one who committed or caused it. It includes every degree, from displeasure and indignation at unworthy acts to wrath and fury. The Hebrew terms...
ANGLO-ISRAELISM – A theory which identifies the Anglo-Saxon race with the Lost Ten Tribes. Its adherents, who claim that the promises given to Israel will be fulfilled with regard to England and America, are said to number 2,000,000 in England...
ANGLO-JEWISH ASSOCIATION – An organization formed by Jews of the British empire having for its objects the promotion of social, moral, and intellectual progress among the Jews; and the obtaining of protection for those who may suffer in consequence of...
ANGLO-JEWISH HISTORICAL EXHIBITION – An exposition held at the Royal Albert Hall, London, England, during April, May, and June, 1887, in which were collected and shown most of the antiquarian remains illustrating the history of the Jews in England, together with a...
ANGLO-JEWISH MAGAZINE, THE – See Periodicals.
ANGOULÊME – Town in the department of Charente, France, where, about 1240, a controversy took place between Nathan ben Joseph Official, and the bishop of Angoulême. In a letter to the bishops of Angoulême, Pope Gregory IX. (1227-41)...
ANGRO-MAINYUSH – See Ahriman.
ANGYAL (ENGEL), ANNA – Hungarian author; born at Veszprim, 1848, died 1874; the daughter of a teacher in the town of Hód-Mezö-Vásárhely. Versed in the literature of Hungary, France, and Germany, from a very early age, she began her literary career in...
ANGYAL (ENGEL), DAVID – Hungarian writer; born November 30, 1857. After graduating from the University of Budapest he was appointed high-school teacher in that city and in spite of absorbing duties distinguished himself as a writer on history and...
ANHALT – An ancient principality of Germany, now a state of the German empire; formerly divided into four duchies: Anhalt-Bernburg, Anhalt-Dessau, Anhalt-Köthen, and Anhalt-Zerbst. Its former capital was Zerbst, a town on a tributary of...
ANI, ANIDA – Among Spanish Jews, a dish composed of beans, peas, fat meat, and eggs, placed in an oven over Friday night, and eaten at the Sabbath meal. The Ani, called by the German Jews Schalet, was regarded by the Inquisition as...
ANILAI – Robber chieftains. Two Jewish boys of Nehardea in Babylonia were apprenticed by their widowed mother to a weaver. Having been punished for laziness by their master, they ran away and became freebooters in the marshlands of the...
ANIMAL FABLES IN TALMUD AND MIDRASH – See Æsop's Fables, also Fables.
ANIMAL OFFERINGS – See Sacrifice.
ANIMAL WORSHIP – This is an expression which needs careful definition, since it is understood and explained in various ways. A distinction has to be made between a strict and a loose employment of the expression. On the one hand, a difference...
ANIMALS, CLEAN AND UNCLEAN – See Dietary Laws.
ANIMALS OF THE BIBLE – To contrast them with plants and minerals, animals are called in Hebrew (living soul): used always collectively in Gen. i. 20, 24; ix. 10; or simply ḥayyah (living): as a rule collectively (Gen. ix. 2 et seq.); rarely as a...
AN'IM ZEMIROT – A mystical hymn, known as the "Shir ha-Kabod" (Hymn of Glory), ascribed to R. Judah, the saint of Speyer (Landshuth, "Hegyon Leb," pp. 265 et seq.), which is honored by many congregations with a prominent place at the close of...
ANISE – See Dill.
ANISIMOV, ILIA SHARBATOVICH – Russian civil engineer; born in Daghestan, 1853; received his first education in the house of his father, Dr. Sharbat ben Nisim, rabbi and president of the Daghestan community. He was graduated from the University of Moscow, and...
ANJOU – Ancient province of France, bounded by Poitou, Brittany, Maine, and Touraine. It now includes the whole of the department Maine-et-Loire as well as parts of Mayenne, of Sarthe, and of Indre-et-Loire. This province, at one time a...
ANKAVA (ANKOA) – See Alnaqua, Ephraim ben Israel.
ANKAVA, ABRAHAM BEN MORDECAI – North-African Talmudist, author, and liturgical poet; born at Fez, Morocco, about the beginning of the nineteenth century; a descendant of the Alnaqua family; died after 1860. His special department of study was the law of...
ANKAVA, JACOB BEN AMRAM – Translator; lived in Algeria in the nineteenth century. He translated from Spanish into Arabic a treatise onthe laws to be observed by Jewish women, under the title "Dat Yehudit" (Laws for the Jewess), Algiers,
ANKLET – An ornament for the ankle, alluded to by Isaiah (iii. 18) in the list of articles of jewelry that the women of that day were accustomed to wear. Sometimes the Anklets were connected by a short chain, compelling in this way an...