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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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ANDRADE, ABRAHAM – French rabbi; born in the last quarter of the eighteenth century; died at Bordeaux, 1836. During the Reign of Terror (1793-94) his energy and eloquence prevented the erection of a guillotine in the market-place of St. Esprit...
ANDRADE, VELOSINO JACOB DE – Physician; born in Pernambuco 1657, of Portuguese parents, who had, like many other Maranos, fled to Brazil after it had become a Dutch colony. When the Portuguese again took possession of Brazil, Andrade went to Holland, and...
ANDREA DE MONTI – See Joseph Ẓarfati.
ANDREAS II – See Hungary.
ANDREAS – A legendary Jewish pope. According to an old Spanish document discovered among some penitential liturgies by Eliezer Ashkenazi, the editor of "Ṭa'am Zeḳenim" (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1854), Andreas was a Jew who, upon becoming a...
ANDREAS BELTRAN – See Beltran.
ANDREAS, JOHANNES – Of Xativa; a convert to Christianity in the sixteenth century; his Jewish name is unknown. In his conversionist zeal he addressed a letter to the Jewish congregations of southern France, summoning them to accept Christianity...
ANDREAS LUCUAS – See Cyrene.
ANDREE, RICHARD – German ethnographer and geographer; since 1890 editor of "Globus"; born 1835 at Brunswick. In 1881 he produced "Zur Volkskunde der Juden," with a map of the distribution of the Jews throughout central Europe. Though written with...
ANDREW – 1. Commonly known as Saint Andrew; one of the twelve apostles of Jesus; brother of Simon Peter. Both Andrew and Peter were fishermen and natives of Bethsaida, on the Lake of Gennesareth (John, i. 44). According to the Gospel of...
ANDROGYNOS (Hermaphrodite) – Rabbinical literature knows both the mythical and the real hermaphrodite: the former in the Haggadah, the latter in the Halakah. The notion of bisexuality must have been derived from Hellenic sources, as the Greek form of the...
ANDRONICUS COMNENUS – Byzantine emperor; born in 1113; assassinated at Constantinople in 1185; reigned in 1183-85. He wrote a book against the Jews and their religion, with the object of converting them to Christianity.Bibliography: Le Beau, Histoire...
ANDRONICUS, SON OF MESHULLAM – Lived in the second century B.C. According to Josephus ("Ant." xiii. 3, § 4), he was the representative of the Jews in their religious dispute with the Samaritans, which was held before King Ptolemy VI. Philometor, about the...
ANECDOTES – One of the many links that help to bind Jews together throughout the world is the number of Anecdotes dealing with Jewish life and appealing to Jewish sentiment, and known in one form or another throughout Jewry. For the most...
ANER – Biblical Data: One of the three Amorite lords of the hill-country of western Palestine confederate with Abram (Gen. xiv. 13). When a fugitive announced the plunder of Sodom and Gomorrah by the kings of the east, Abram with the...
ANGEL, ABRAHAM – A Turkish Talmudist and author who flourished at the beginning of the nineteenth century. He published "Pittuḥe Ḥotam" (Engraving of a Seal), Salonica, 1839, dealing with all questions left undecided in the Talmud, and which are...
ANGEL, BARUCH – A Talmudic author and principal of the Talmudic colleges of Salonica and Smyrna in the first half of the seventeenth century. He was a pupil of Asher ha-Kohen ben Ardut, and became one of the foremost teachers in Turkey. The...
ANGEL BEN ḤAYYIM – A Turkish commentator on the Bible; lived at Salonica in the last half of the eighteenth century. He wrote "'Eẓ Ḥayyim" (Tree of Life), containing disquisitions on Genesis. It was printed together with M. Algazi's "Sefat Emet"...
ANGEL, ḤAYYIM VIDAL BEN SHABBETHAI – Turkish rabbi and preacher, who flourished at Salonica about the middle of the eighteenth century. He wrote: "Sippur ha-Ḥayyim" (Tale of Life), containing several funeral orations and miscellaneous homilies on the Pentateuch...
ANGEL, MEIR BEN ABRAHAM, of Belgrade – A renowned preacher who lived in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and died in Safed (Palestine) after having traveled through Poland, Italy, and Greece. He wrote "Masoret ha-Berit" (Tradition of the Covenant), 700...
ANGEL, MOSES – Headmaster of the London Jews' Free School; born April 29, 1819, and died at London, in 1898. He received his early training at H. N. Solomon's boarding-school at Hammersmith and entered University College School at the age of...
ANGEL, SHEMAIAH – Banker and philanthropist of Damascus; died in 1874. He was a great benefactor to his brethren in Syria and to the inhabitants of Damascus. After the suppression of the Druse outbreak in 1860 he distributed among the poor of all...
ANGELO DI MANUELE – See Manuele.
ANGELOLOGY – Biblical, Talmudical, and Post-Talmudical: Angelology is that branch of theology which treats of angels. Angels (from αγγελōς = messenger, Greek equivalent of the Hebrew ) are according to the usual conception superhuman beings...
ANGELUS – A Jewish merchant in Rome in the thirteenth century, who, with other merchants— Sabbatinus, Museus, Salamon, and Consiliolus—held commercial relations with the papal court. They were associated in business with Christians who...