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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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ANAPA – Town in the province of Kuban, Russia, on the eastern coast of the Black Sea. Jews are said to have lived here in the first century, and to have had a synagogue.Bibliography: Harkavy, in Voskhod, March, 1894, p. 54.H. R....
ANARCHISM – This term is used so loosely in the United States by writers and public speakers that a scientific definition appears to be a prerequisite to the proper understanding of its different phases. As it is often stated that Jews have...
ANATH – The name of an ancient war-goddess of the western group of Semites. The Egyptian way of writing the name of the Phenician-Israelitish city "Beth-Anath" indicates that is here a goddess, and probably also in the name of the place...
ANATH – See Shamgar.
ANATHEMA – Derivation and Definition. A term used both in the sense of consecration and of condemnation. The old Greek 'Aνάθημα signifies a votive offering, something devoted to, or set aside for, the special use of the gods; in its...
ANATHOTH – A town in the territory of Benjamin in Palestine, included among the original Levitical cities (Josh. xxi. 18; compare I Chron. vi. 60). It has been identified by Robinson with the modern village 'Anâta, about two and one-half...
ANATOLI BEN DAVID CASANI – See Casani, Anatoli ben David.
ANATOLIO, JACOB BEN ABBA MARI BEN SIMSON – Invited to Naples by Frederick II. Hebrew translator of Arabic scientific literature; flourished about 1194-1256 (see "Journal Asiatique," xiv. 34). Anatolio, as he is frequently briefly designated, certainly was of southern...
ANATOMY – Earliest Mention in Bible. The science dealing with the structure of organisms, especially that of the human body. The information given in the Bible concerning the parts of the human body is merely popular in character. Thus a...
ANAVIM, THE – The name of a sect or party. See Ḥasidim.
ANAW – The name of a Jewish family that settled in Italy, and which was originally resident at Rome. According to a family tradition, it was one of the four prominent Jewish families deported by Titus to Rome upon the destruction of...
ANAW, ABRAHAM BEN JEHIEL HA-ROFE – Physician and rabbi in Rome at the beginning of the thirteenth century. He was the father of Zedekiah, author of "Shibbole ha-Leḳeṭ," and of Benjamin, a liturgical poet.Bibliography: Vogelstein and Rieger, Gesch. d. Juden in...
ANAW, BENJAMIN B. ABRAHAM – A liturgical poet, Talmudist, and commentator of the thirteenth century; older brother of Zedekiah b. Abraham. Perhaps the most gifted and learned of his Roman contemporaries. Although chiefly a poet, Anaw possessed a thorough...
ANAW, ZEDEKIAH B. ABRAHAM – Author of ritualistic works; younger brother of Benjamin b. Abraham Anaw; lived at Rome in the thirteenth century; received his Talmudic training not only in Rome, but also in Germany, where he was the pupil of R. Jacob of...
ANBAL (AMBAL) THE JASSIN (OSSETE) – Among the many foreigners who held positions at the court of Prince Andrei Bogolyubski, in Kiev, toward the end of the twelfth century, were two of Jewish origin: (1) Ephraim Moisich, or Moisievich, who had gained the prince's...
ANCESTOR WORSHIP – The same homage and adoration paid to deceased parents and more remote ancestors as usually given to deities. Many anthropologists are of opinion that this was the original form of religion (H. Spencer, Lippert); the school...
ANCHIAS, JUAN DE – Associate and first private secretary of the Inquisition in Spain (1485-90). He was understood to be especially familiar with the forms of wills and marriage contracts used by Maranos accused of Judaism. In 1507 he wrote, in...
ANCIENT OF DAYS – Biblical Data: A poetical epithet for God. It is an incorrect rendering of the Aramaic 'attiḳ yomin (Dan. vii. 9) or 'attiḳ yomaya (ib. vii. 13, 22), which should be translated "an aged one," "the aged one" (compare Dalman, "Die...
ANCONA – First Settlement of Jews. Ancient city of Italy, capital of a province bearing its name, situated on the Adriatic; said to have been founded by Syracusan refugees and to have been one of the first Italian cities to shelter a...
ANCONA, ALESSANDRO D' – Historian of Italian literature and philologist; born at Pisa (Tuscany), Feb. 20, 1835. He is the youngest of five brothers, all of whom have achieved fame in the careers they have chosen. Alessandro received his first education...
ANCONA, JACOB BEN ELIA D' – Copyist; lived at the end of the fifteenth century. Steinschneider states ("Hebr. Bibl." xx. 126) that Ancona copied some anonymous commentaries on the "Ḳa'arat Kesef" of Ezobi and on the "Beḥinat 'Olam." The latter work bears...
ANDALUSIA – The largest of the ancient divisions of southern Spain, comprising the Moorish kingdoms of Seville, Cordova, and Granada, with the towns of Malaga, Lucena (Alicena), and several others. This most beautiful portion of the Iberian...
ANDERNACH – An ancient city in the Prussian governmental district of Coblenz. From very early times a Jewish community was sheltered within its walls. About 1255-60 a certain Godelif, his wife Bela, and their son Moses, all of Andernach,...
ANDI – One of the wild Lesghian tribes of the province of Tersk (Terek) and northern Daghestan. Like the Tabassarans and other Caucasian tribes, the Andi claim to be of Israelitish origin. They number about 20,000, and were conquered...
ANDRADA, SALVADOR D' – One of the earliest Jewish settlers in New York, his name being first encountered in 1655. He appears to have been more wealthy than most of his associates, was actively engaged in commerce, and was one of the leaders in the...