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BATHORI, STEPHEN – Prince of Transylvania 1571-76; king of Poland 1575-86, in succession to Henry of Anjou, who had left the kingdom in order to occupy the throne of France as Henry III. At this election Solomon Ashkenazi, the physician and...
BATHS, BATHING – Symbolic Significance. The clean body as an index and exponent of a clean soul, and thus of an approximation to holiness, is so natural a conception in the human mind that the records of early Jewish legislation accept the...
BATHYRA – Fortress and city founded by Zamaris, a distinguished Jew of Babylon, who about the year 20 crossed the Euphrates with 500 mounted archers, and requested a dwelling-place from the Roman governor of Syria, Cn. Sentius Saturninus....
BATHYRA – A family whose name is probably identical with that of the city of Bathyra. The name is so rare that all persons called "Bathyra" in the Talmud and Midrash are included in the one family, although there are no data to prove...
BAṬLANIM – Title of the ten men of leisure who, unoccupied by business of their own, devote their whole time to communal affairs and are particularly relied upon to attend divine service regularly at the synagogue. Only such places are...
BÁTOR (BREISACH), SZIDOR – Hungarian composer; born at Budapest Feb. 23, 1860. He passed through the realschule and polytechnic in his native city, and at the same time attended the National Conservatory and the Academy of Music. His teacher in...
BATTERY – See Assault and Battery.
BATTLEMENTS – See House.
BAUER, BRUNO – Christian theologian, philosopher, and historian; born Sept. 6, 1809, at Eisenburg, duchy of Saxe-Altenburg; died April 13, 1882, at Rixdorf, near Berlin.While Bauer regarded emancipation from the thraldom of medievalism as the...
BAUER, GEORGE LORENZ – Christian author of a theology of the Old Testament; born at Hippolstein, Bavaria, Aug. 14, 1755; died Jan. 13, 1806. In 1789 he was appointed professor of philosophy and Oriental languages at the University of Altdorf, and in...
BAUER, JULIUS – Austrian humorist; born at Raab-Sziget, Hungary, Oct. 15, 1853. Bauer was educated at home until 1873, when he went to Vienna to study medicine. Being poor, he wrote for the local comic papers, and, to his surprise, did so well...
BAUER, MARIE-BERNARD – Chaplain of the Tuileries, Paris; born 1829 at Budapest, Hungary; died 1898. Through the Carmelite priest Augustin (whose actual name was Hermann Cohen), Bauer, after an adventurous youth in which he tried all sorts of métiers,...
BAUER, MORITZ – Austrian physician; specialist in vaccination; born at Vienna Feb. 25, 1844. He received his education at his native town, where he attended the gymnasium and university. After obtaining his doctorate in 1870, he was appointed...
BAUMGARTEN, B. KÁROLY – Hungarian jurist; born at Budapest Sept. 21, 1853, where he also finished his education; brother of Isidor Baumgarten. From 1876 to 1892 he practised law in Budapest, at the same time editing the technical journal "Buntetö Jog...
BAUMGARTEN, EMANUEL – Austrian author and communal worker; born in Kremsier Jan. 15, 1828. In his youth he frequented various yeshibot, acquiring secular learning in private; and in 1848 he went to Vienna, where he devoted himself to commercial life,...
BAUMGARTEN, ISIDOR – Hungarian jurist; born March 27, 1850, at Budapest, where he completed his education. Upon his graduation as doctor of law he resided abroad for several years. In 1882 he was admitted to the bar, and in 1885 became a lecturer on...
BAUSK – District town, government of Courland, Russia. According to the census of 1897 the population was 6,543, including some three thousand Jews. The principal occupations of the latter are commerce and handicrafts, Jewish artisans...
BAVARIA – Earliest References. Kingdom in southern Germany. The settlement of Jewish merchants in Bavaria dates from the very earliest times. The legend that they dwelt in certain cities—as, for instance, Regensburg and Augsburg—before...
BAYNUS (BAYNE), RUDOLPHUS – A Christian Hebraist of Cambridge; professor of the Hebrew language in Paris about the middle of the sixteenth century. He was the author of the work "Compendium Michlol" (also with the Hebrew title, "Ḳiẓẓur ha-Ḥeleḳ Rishon...
BAYONNE – History. Ark of the Law in the Bayonne Synagogue.(From Léon, "Histoire des Juifs à Bayonne.")Fortified city in the department of Basses-Pyrénées, in the extreme southwest of France. It is divided into Great and Little Bayonne...
BAYREUTH – Had a Chief Rabbi in 1372. Principality and capital city of the government district of Oberfranken, Bavaria. Mention is first made of the Jews of Bayreuth in a document of the year 1343. In that year Kalman of Bayreuth is spoken...
BAZARJIK – A small town of eastern Rumelia, twenty-four miles from Philippopolis, containing a Jewish community of 1,700 in a total population of 17,000. It is said to date from the year 1492, or, according to Bianconi, from the expulsion...
BAZE, ABRAHAM DE – A prominent Jew in the principality of Orange, Burgundy, at the beginning of the sixteenth century. When the Jews were forced by a decree of Philibert of Luxemburg (issued at Courthezon April 20, 1505) to quit Orange, a period...
BDELLIUM – A precious stone mentioned in Gen. ii. 12 by the side of gold and the "shoham" stone as one of the chief products of Havilah. Since manna is compared in appearance to Bdellium (Num. xi. 7), it may be concluded that the latter...
BE ABIDAN – Supposed names of two places where, according to the Talmud, disputations between Jews and non-Jews were held. The location of these places is as much a matter of dispute as the words themselves—were they really names of places...