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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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BENDERY – District town in the government of Bessarabia. In 1898 it had a Jewish population of 12,000 out of a total of 33,000 inhabitants. Commerce is the main occupation of the Jews there, only 1,061 of them being engaged in handicrafts...
BENDETSOHN, MENAHEM MANUS – Russian pedagogue and Hebrew writer; born in Grodno 1817; died there March 20, 1888. After a careful Talmudic education in his native town he was sent, while still young, to Breslau, Germany, where his father-in-law, Reuben...
BENDIG, MEÏR, OF ARLES – Talmudist at Arles, in the Provence, probably in the second half of the fifteenth century. He wrote the following works: (1) An index of all the Biblical passages cited in the Babylonian Talmud, including the "minor treatises,"...
BENDIN – Same as Piotrkow (Vol. x. p. 572).
BENDIT – See Benedict.
BENDIX, FRITS EMIL – Danish violoncellist and composer; born Jan. 12, 1847, at Copenhagen. He first studied with F. Rauch, and later with Friedrich Neruda and Friedrich Grützmacher in Dresden. From 1866 to 1871 he lived in Germany, where he...
BENDIX, OTTO JULIUS EMANUEL – Danish oboist and pianist; born July 26, 1845, at Copenhagen; a brother of Frits Bendix. He first devoted himself to the study of the oboe, and received instruction on that instrument from Christian Schliemann. He was also a...
BENDIX, VICTOR EMANUEL – Danish violin virtuoso, pianist, and composer; born May 17, 1851, at Copenhagen; brother of Frits Bendix. He early manifested a remarkable talent for music. From 1867 to 1869 he was a pupil at the newly founded conservatory of...
BENE-BERAK – A town assigned to Dan (Josh. xix. 45). It was situated on the seacoast plain southeast of Joppa, and is to be identified with the modern Ibn Ibrak (Buhl, "Geographie," p. 196). The Danites, however, did not continue to hold the...
BENE BERITH – See B'nai B'rith.
BENE MIKRA – See Karaites.
BENEDETTI, SALVATORE DE – Italian scholar; born April 18, 1818, at Novara, a town in Piedmont; died Aug. 4, 1891, at Pisa. In his time the public schools of Italy were closed to Jews, and therefore Benedetti attended the only school of importance in...
BENEDICT VIII. – Pope from 1012 to 1024. A great persecution of the Jews took place during his pontificate. A terrible earthquake and hurricane visited the city of Rome on Good Friday, 1021, and the following day, in which many persons perished....
BENEDICT XII. (JACQUES DE NOVELLÈS) – A monk of the Cistercian order; elected pope Dec. 30, 1334; died April 25, 1342. Although he displayed the greatest zeal for the extermination of the Albigenses and other heretics, he cherished kindly feelings toward the Jews...
BENEDICT XIII. (PEDRO DE LUNA) – Antipope; born at Aragon about 1334; elected Sept. 28, 1394; died at Peñiscola June 1 (according to some, Nov. 29), 1424. This "unfrocked and spurious pope," as he was termed by the Council of Constance which deposed him (1415),...
BENEDICT XIV. (PROSPERO LAMBERTINI) – Two hundred and fifty-fourth pope; born at Bologna in 1675; elected pope Aug. 17, 1740; died May 3, 1758. This pope, who graciously accepted a dedication from Voltaire and was full of amenity toward all heretics, thought it his...
BENEDICT, SIR JULIUS – Composer, conductor, and teacher of music; born at Stuttgart Nov. 27, 1804; died in London June 5, 1885. Showing considerable musical talent as a boy, he became, at the age of fifteen, the pupil of Hummel at Weimar, and was...
BENEDICT, MARCUS – See Benet, Mordecai.
BENEDICT, MOSES – German banker and artist; born in 1772 at Stuttgart, Germany; died there July 8, 1852. He was destined for the profession of sculptor. With his brother Seligmann Löb he was sent in 1785 to the Karlsschule in Stuttgart. Later on...
BENEDICT, NAPHTALI – See Benet, Naphtali.
BENEDICT OF YORK – Leading member of the Jewish community in York, England, at the end of the twelfth century; died in 1189. Together with Josce of York he attended the coronation of Richard I., and in the riot which took place on that occasion...
BENEDICTIONS – Blessings, or prayers of thanksgiving and praise, recited either during divine service or on special occasions. They were, according to rabbinical tradition (Ber. 33a), instituted and formulated by the founders of the synagogue,...
BENEDICTUS, COENRAAD – Mohel" and surgeon at Surinam, Dutch Guiana, about 1830. Nothing is known of his life nor of his literary activity other than the bare fact that he published at Paramaribo in 1830 (?) a tract describing the operation of...
BENEDIKT, EDMUND – Austrian jurist; born at Döbling, near Vienna, Oct. 6, 1851. He studied law at the University of Vienna, and after graduation became the publisher of the "Juristische Blätter." In addition to his editorial labors he wrote:...
BENEDIKT, MORITZ – German journalist, publisher, and editor of the Vienna "Neue Freie Presse"; born at Gnatschitz, Moravia, May 27, 1849. On attaining his majority he chose journalism as a profession, contributing with considerable success to...