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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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CAIAPHAS – a Greek word; in the Hebrew original, probably not , but ; compare Mishnah Parah iii. 5; Derenbourg, "Essai sur I'Histoire de la Palestine," p. 215, note 2; Schürer, "Gesch." 3d ed., ii. 218; Josephus, "Antiquities of the Jews,"...
CAIN – 1. Biblical Data: First-born of Adam and Eve, named "Cain" ("Ḳayin") because "gotten" (root, "ḳanah") "with the help of Yhwh." He became a tiller of the ground, and made an offering of its fruits which Yhwh did not accept,...
CAINAN – See Kainan.
CAIRO – See Egypt.
CALABRESE, HAYYIM BEN JOSEPH – See Vital, Ḥayyim.
CALABRIA – See Italy.
CALAH – The name of a city mentioned in Gen. x. 11 et seq., and forming with Nineveh, Reḥoboth 'Ir, and Resen the chief places in the Assyrian extension of Nimrod's domain. The verse in question embodies a correct tradition that the...
CALAHOR(R)A – A family of Spanish descent, resident in Cracow from the sixteenth century up to the present time, of which the following members attained prominence:1. Israel Samuel Calahorra (in the place of read ): Writer; lived at Cracow;...
CALAMANI, JOSHUA ABRAHAM BEN SIMḤAH – Italian Talmudist; born at Venice in 1704. The surname "Calamani" is, according to Steinschneider, derived from the German "Kalman" or "Kalonymus," borne by an ancestor of Joshua. Calamani was a precocious child, the only work...
CALAMUS – One of the ingredients (Ex. xxx. 23) of the oil made specially for anointing the tabernacle (Ex. xxx. 26), its vessels (ib. 27-29), and the priests (ib. 30). The calamus reed was fragrant, and is therefore mentioned in the long...
CALATAYUD, CALATAL-YEHUD – City of Aragon, which had a large Jewish community as early as the reign of 'Abd al-Raḥman III. In 1882, while workmen were digging the foundation of a house, they discovered a marble tombstone bearing a Hebrew inscription in...
CALATRAVA – Fortified city in the former province of La Mancha, in Castile. In 1146, when it was captured from the Moors by Alfonso VII., the latter made his favorite, Judah b. Joseph ibn Ezra ha-Nasi, governor of the city, just as...
CALAZ, JUDAH – See Kalaẓ, Judah.
CALCOL – A man famous for his wisdom, since the Biblical writer attests the wisdom of Solomon by saying that he surpassed Calcol. In the account of I Kings iv. 31, R. V., Calcol (Chalcol, I Kings iv. 31, A. V.) is given as the son of...
CALCUTTA – Synagogues. Capital of Bengal, and seat of government of British India. The Jews of Calcutta now number about 2,150, of whom 150 are European and the remainder natives of Asiatic Turkey, Persia, and southern Arabia. Just when...
CALEB – Biblical Data: According to the Biblical text, Caleb was of the tribe of Judah. He represented that tribe among the twelve spies whom Mosessent from the wilderness to spy out Canaan. He and Joshua alone brought back an...
CALEBITES – A branch of the Edomite clan of Kenaz (compare Judges i. 12 with Gen. xxxvi. 11, 15, 42) that, before the Israelitish conquest, had migrated to southern Judah and settled in the vicinity of Hebron. They appear to have entered...
CALENDAR, HISTORY OF – The history of the Jewish calendar may be divided into three periods—the Biblical, the Talmudic, and the post-Talmudic. The first rested purely on the observation of the sun and the moon, the second on observation and reckoning,...
CALENDAR – A systematic arrangement of the days of the year. The Jewish calendar reckons the days from evening to evening, in accordance with the order observed in the Biblical account of the Creation, "And there was evening and there was...
CALF, GOLDEN – Biblical Data: A portable image overlaid with gold, made by Aaron at Mount Sinai (Ex. xxxii.). As the text stands, it narrates how Moses had gone up into the mountain to receive the Ten Words, and remained forty days. When the...
CALF-WORSHIP – Critical View: Among the Hebrews, as among the other agricultural Semites, the bull was associated with deity in a sacred character (see Ox). The form in which this thought found expression in Israel was in their representation...
CALIFORNIA – Early Communities. One of the United States of America on the Pacific coast. There exists no authenticated record of the activities of Jews in California prior to 1849. During that year, attracted by the discoveries of gold,...
CALIFS – 1. The attitude of the first Mohammedan rulers toward their Jewish subjects was as much regulated by circumstances as had been that of Mohammed himself. The latter, having subdued the Jewish tribes of Arabia and located them in...
CALIGULA (CAIUS CÆSAR AUGUSTUS GERMANICUS) – Third emperor of Rome; born Aug. 31, 12 C.E. ; assassinated at Rome Jan. 24, 41. He soon displayed the characteristics which made his reign a blot on Roman history. He formed a strong friendship for the Jewish king Agrippa, who,...
CALIMANI, BARUCH – Italian publisher; lived in the second half of the sixteenth and at the beginning of the seventeenth century at Venice. He issued the work of his teacher, Eliezer Ashkenazi, "Ma'ase Adonai" (Venice, 1583), and Moses Alshech's...