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CALIMANI, SIMḤAH (SIMON) BEN ABRAHAM – Venetian rabbi and author; died at Venice Aug. 2, 1784. He was a versatile writer, and equally prominent as linguist, poet, orator, and Talmudist. During his rabbinate Calimani was engaged as corrector at the Hebrew...
CALITAS – A Levite who had married a foreign wife, but, at the solicitation of Ezra, repudiated her (I Esd. ix. 23). Ezra x. 23 gives "Kelaiah," a glossator, however, giving the collateral form "Kelita." He is perhaps identical with the...
CALIXTUS II. (GUIDO OF BURGUNDY) – One hundred and sixty-seventh pope (1119-24); born at Quigney, near Besançon, France; died at Rome Dec. 12, 1124. His attitude toward the Jews was a very favorable one. On entering Rome, after having defeated the antipope...
CALLENBERG, JOHANN HEINRICH – Professor of theology and philology, and promoter of conversionist enterprise among the Jews; born of peasant parents at Molschleben Jan. 12, 1694; died July 11, 1760. In 1735 he was appointed professor of philology in the...
CALLING UP – See 'Aliyah.
CALLIRRHOE – Hot springs on the western side of the Dead Sea, near the Zerka Maim (Buhl, "Geographie des Alten Palästina," p. 123; Smith, "Historical Geography of Palestine," p. 571). Josephus describes the springs ("Ant." xvii. 6, § 2) as...
CALLISTHENES – A Syrian who was believed to have been concerned in the burning of the gates of the Temple during the persecution to which the Jews were subjected in the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes (I Macc. iv. 38). When the Jews were...
CALM, MARIE – German authoress and advocate of women's suffrage; born at Arolsen, Germany, April 3, 1832; died at Cassel, Germany, Feb. 22, 1887. She managed a seminary for indigent girls at Cassel, and was one of the original members of the...
CALMANSON, JACOB (JACQUES) – See Poland.
CALMER, LIEFMANN – Baron of Picquigny, an important personage in French Jewry of the eighteenth century; born in Aurich, Hanover, in 1711; died in Paris Dec. 17, 1784. His full synagogal name was Moses Eliezer Lipmann ben Kalonymus—in German,...
CALMET, AUGUSTIN – French Catholic theologian, historian, and Biblical scholar; born 1672 at Mesnil-la-Horgne in Lorraine; died 1757 in Paris. In 1688 he entered the Order of St. Benedict, and began his studies. Coming across the smaller Hebrew...
CALNEH – 1. City, mentioned together with Babylon, Erech, and Accad as forming part of the Babylonian kingdom of Nimrod (Gen. x. 10). The exact site of Calneh is unknown. It has been identified with Nippur (modern Niffer) by Rawlinson on...
CALÑI, SAMUEL BEN MOSES – Turkish rabbi of the fifteenth century; born at Arta in the Morea. Calñi is the author of responsa entitled "Mishpeṭe Shemuel," and printed by his nephew at Venice, 1599-1600. He was the son-in-law of Benjamin b. Mattathias,...
CALNO – A city mentioned with Hamath and Samaria, and compared to Carchemish (Isa. x. 9). Its identity is doubtful. It is named "Calneh" in Amos vi. 2; but must not be confused with the Calneh of Gen. x. 10. The latter was a Babylonian...
CALUMNY – Evil-speaking; a sin regarded with intense aversion both in the Bible and in rabbinical literature. The technical term for it in the latter is (leshon hara', "the evil tongue"). In the Bible the equivalent words are: , meaning...
CALVERT, THOMAS – English Hebrew scholar; born 1606; died at York March, 1679. He wrote "The Blessed Jew of Morocco" (York, 1648), an adaptation of the well-known letter of Samuel Maroccanus, itself probably derived from the polemical treatise of...
CALVO, EMANUEL – Italian physician and Neo-Hebraic poet; born at Salonica toward the end of the seventeenth century; died before 1772. In early youth he went to Leghorn with his learned father, Raphael Calvo, and on Oct. 23, 1724, was graduated...
CALVÖR, CASPER – Lutheran theologian; born Nov. 8, 1650, at Hildesheim, Prussia; died at Clausthal May 11, 1725. He became master of arts in 1674, deacon at Zellerfeld in 1677, superintendent in 1684, councilor of the consistory in 1708, and...
CALW, MEÏR – See Meïr Calw.
CAMBRIDGE – University town of England, and one of the earliest English towns inhabited by Jews. Fuller ("History of Cambridge," p. 8) fixes the date of the first Jewish settlement as 1073. The old synagogue was near the prison, but was...
CAMEL – The well-known ruminant, native in Asia and Africa. The word "camel" (Hebrew, , gamal) is the same in the Assyrian, Samaritan, Aramaic, Syriac, Arabic, Egyptian, and Ethiopic languages. Together with the knowledge of the animal,...
CAMONDO – Well-known family of Jewish financiers and philanthropists of Spanish-Portuguese origin. Several centuries ago it established itself at Venice, where some of its members became famous by their scholarship and by the services...
CAMP – A collection of tents (Judges vii. 13), or booths and huts (Neh. viii. 14), pitched or erected to give shelter to shepherds, travelers, or soldiers, sometimes overnight merely, or for many days or even months. Safety and a...
CAMPANATOR – See Schulklopfer.
CAMPANTON, ISAAC B. JACOB – Spanish rabbi; born 1360; died at Penafeel in 1463. He lived in the period darkened by the outrages of Ferran Martinez and Vicente Ferrer, when intellectual life and Talmudic erudition were on the decline among the Jews of...