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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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HARTVIGSON, ANTON – Danish pianist; born at Aarhus, Jutland, Oct. 16, 1845; brother of Frits Hartvigson. He studied under Neupert and Tausig. After appearing in several concerts in Copenhagen he went to London, where for ten years he was professor...
HARTVIGSON, FRITS – Danish pianist; born at Grenaae, Jutland, May 31, 1841. His first instructors in piano were his mother and Anton Rée. In 1859 he went to Berlin, where he studied under Hans von Bülow. Hartvigson's first important appearance in...
HARVEST – The Palestinian harvest began in April with the cutting (hence "ḳaẓir") of the barley. The lentil and pea ripened at the same time, and the reaping of the wheat and spelt followed two weeks later, although, of course, the time...
ḤASA – Babylonian amora of the third century, contemporary of Naḥman (b. Jacob) and of Ammi (B. M. 57a). Though he was a poor man, people trusted him with their treasures, making him their bailee, without taking receipts from him. It...
ḤASAN BEN MASHIAḤ – Karaite teacher of the ninth or tenth century. According to Sahl ben Maẓliaḥ (see Pinsker, "Liḳḳuṭe Ḳadmoniyyot," p. 37), Ḥasan publicly disputed with Saadia, and after Saadia's death wrote against him. In opposition to this,...
ḤASDAI I. – Third exilarch of the Arabian period; died in 730. He was a descendant of Bostanai I. and a successor of Ḥanina b. Adai. His eldest son was Solomon b. Ḥasdai, who also, after his father's death, became exilarch. His second son,...
ḤASDAI, ABRAHAM BEN SAMUEL HALEVI – Hebrew translator; lived in Barcelona about 1230. He is supposed to have been the son of the poet Samuel ibn Abraham ibn Ḥasdai ha-Levi (1165-1216; Grätz, "Geschichte," vi. 195). Abraham Ḥasdai was an enthusiastic partizan of...
ḤASDAI (ḤISDAI), ABU AL-FAḌL BEN JOSEPH IBN – Jewish convert to Islam; lived at Saragossa in the second half of the eleventh century. Ibn Abi 'Uṣaibia ("'Uyun al-Anba fi Ṭabaḳat al-Aṭibba") pompously calls him a descendant of the prophet Moses. He relates further that...
ḤASDAI, ABU OMAR JOSEPH IBN – Judæo-Spanish poet of the eleventh century; probably born at Cordova; died between 1045 and 1055. Ibn Janaḥ, in his "Luma'" (p. 152="Riḳmah," p. 86; between 1050 and 1055), speaks of Joseph as already dead. He saw him at...
Ḥasdai, ABU YUSUF (BEN ISAAC BEN EZRA) IBN SHAPRUT – Spanish physician, diplomat, and patron of Jewish science; born about 915 at Jaen; died 970 or 990 at Cordova. His father was a wealthy and learned Jew of Jaen. Ḥasdai acquired in his youth a thorough knowledge of Hebrew,...
ḤASDAI BEN SAMUEL BEN PERAḤYAH HA-KOHEN – Turkish rabbi; born at Salonica; died there Sept., 1677; claimed descent from Joseph ben Gorion. He was a son of the learned Samuel ben Peraḥyah of Salonica, and a pupil of Rabbi Ḥayyim Shabbethai in that city, where he also...
ḤASDAI BEN SOLOMON – Spanish rabbi; born probably in Tudela. He was a pupil of R. Nissim Gerondi in Barcelona. His friend (and probably fellow pupil) Isaac b. Sheshet calls him the "Spanish worthy." He officiated as rabbi until 1379, when the plague...
HASELBAUER – See Eybeschütz, Jonathan.
HASHABIAH – Name of several Levites, chiefly in the time of the return from Babylon. The most important are: 1. The fourth son of Jeduthun, appointed by David to play the harp under the direction of his father in the house of the Lord; he...
HA-SHAḤAR – Hebrew monthly; published at Vienna from 1869 to 1884 by P. Smolenskin, who was also its editor. It resembled the German "Monatsschrift," containing scientific articles, essays, biographies, and narratives. It contained also...
HA-SHILOAḤ – See Periodicals.
HASHKABAH – See Hazkarat Neshamot.
HASHMONAH – Thirtieth station of the Israelites during their wandering in the wilderness (Num. xxxiii. 29, 30). It was situated not far from Mount Hor. The Septuagint has Σελμωνά, evidently confusing it with the station Zalmonah, mentioned...
HASHUB – 1. Son of Pahath-moab, who assisted Nehemiah in the repair of the walls of Jerusalem (Neh. iii. 11). 2. Another Hashub, engaged in the same work (Neh. iii. 23). 3. One of the chiefs of the people, who sealed the covenant with...
HA-SHULAMMIT – See Periodicals.
HASHUM – 1. Chief of a family the members of which, two hundred and twenty-three in number, returned from captivity with Zerubbabel (Ezra ii. 19; comp. Neh. vii. 22). Seven of them had married foreign women, whom they had to put away...
HASIDÆANS – Account in II. Macc. Religious party which commenced to play an important rôle in political life only during the time of the Maccabean wars, although it had existed for quite some time previous. They are mentioned only three...
ḤASIDIM, ḤASIDISM – asidism is a religious movement which arose among the Polish Jews in the eighteenth century, and which won over nearly half of the Jewish masses. In its literal meaning the word "Ḥasidism" is identical with "pietism" ("Ḥasid" =...
HASKALAH – Generally, "haskalah" indicates the beginning of the movement among the Jews about the end of the eighteenth century in Eastern Europe toward abandoning their exclusiveness and acquiring the knowledge, manners, and aspirations...
HASMONEANS – The family name of the Hasmonean dynasty originates with the ancestor of the house, ΑΣαμωναῖος (Josephus, "Ant." xii. 6, § 1; xiv. 16, § 4; xvi. 7, § 1) = or (Middot i. 6; Targ. Yer. to I Sam. ii. 4), who, according to...