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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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JAROSLAW – See Yaroslav.
JAROSLAW, AARON – One of the Biurists; a tutor in the house of Mendelssohn; afterward teacher at Lemberg. His commentary on the Book of Numbers appeared in the first edition of Mendelssohn's Pentateuch ("Netibot ha-Shalom," Berlin, 1783) and has...
JASHER, BOOK OF – A book, apparently containing heroic songs, mentioned twice in the Old Testament: in the account of the battle of Gibeon a fragment of a song of Joshua is given as taken from it (Josh. x. 13); and another fragment is quoted in...
JASON – 1. High priest from 174 to 171 B.C.; brother of the high priest Onias III. During the absence of Onias, who had been summoned to Antioch to meet charges brought against him by the Hellenists, Jason joined hands with his...
JASON OF CYRENE – Judæo-Hellenistic historian. He wrote a history of the Maccabean revolt in five books, from which the author of II Maccabees took his data (II Macc. ii. 23), this book being practically an abstract (ἐπιτομὴ; ib. ii. 26, 28) of...
JASSY (Jaschi) – City of Rumania. Jassy contains the oldest and most important Jewish community of Moldavia, of which principality it was formerly the capital. Psantir has found in the old cemetery there stones with inscriptions dating back to...
JASTROW, IGNAZ – German economist and statistician; born Sept. 13, 1856, at Nakel. Having studied at Breslau, Berlin, and Göttingen (Ph.D. 1878), he became in 1885 privat-docent of social economy at the University of Berlin.Among Jastrow's works...
JASTROW, JOSEPH – American psychologist; born Jan. 30, 1863, at Warsaw, Poland. He accompanied his father, Dr. Marcus Jastrow, to the United States in 1866, and was educated in Philadelphia. In 1882 he graduated from the University of...
JASTROW, MARCUS (MORDECAI) – American rabbi and scholar; born June 5, 1829, at Rogasen, Prussian Poland; died Oct. 13, 1903, at Germantown, Pa.; fifth child of Abraham Jastrow and Yetta (Henrietta) Rolle. Until 1840 he was privately educated. In 1844 he...
JASTROW, MORRIS, JR. – American Orientalist and librarian; son of Marcus Jastrow; born Aug. 13, 1861, at Warsaw, Poland. His family removed to the United States in 1866, and settled in Philadelphia. Morris received his early education chiefly at...
JATIVA – City in the kingdom of Valencia. The Jews of this locality were granted special privileges by Don Jaime, the conqueror of Valencia. He gave them houses and fields, and allotted them a street as a special quarter. In 1267 the...
JAVAL, EMILE – French physician and deputy; born May 5, 1839, at Paris; son of Leopold Javal. Emile studied both medicine and mineralogy (M.D. 1868); he devoted himself specially to ophthalmology, and invented an ingenious method for the...
JAVAL, ERNEST LEOPOLD – French administrative officer; born Sept. 25, 1843, at Paris; died there Sept. 1, 1897; son of Leopold Javal. He was a lieutenant in the Gardes Mobiles during the Franco-Prussian war (1870-71). In 1877 he was appointed...
JAVAL, LEOPOLD – French politician; born at Mülhausen Dec. 1, 1804; died at Paris March 28, 1872. The son of a wealthy merchant, he entered the army and became a sublieutenant; as such he took part in the expedition against Algiers (1830). He...
JAVAN – Name of one of the seven sons of Japheth, given in the list of nations (Gen. x. 2, 4; comp. I Chron. i. 5, 7), and as such the progenitor of Elisha, Tarshish, the Hittim, and the Dodanim (Rodanim). The word corresponds to the...
JAWLIKAR, SAMUEL ISAAC – Beni-Israel; born about 1820 in Bombay. He enlisted in the Third Bombay Native Light Infantry April 4, 1840; was promoted jemidar Jan. 1, 1855; native adjutant March 19, 1855; subahdar Feb. 1, 1862; and subahdar-major May 12,...
JEARIM, MOUNT – See Chesalon.
JEBUS – See Jerusalem.
JEBUSITES – Biblical Data: One of the nations that occupied Palestine at the time of the invasion of the Israelites. In the list of the sons of Canaan, the Jebusite occupies the third place, between Heth and the Amorite (Gen. x. 15, 16; I...
JECONIAH – See Jehoiachin.
JEDAIAH PENINI – See Bedersi, Jedaiah ben Abraham.
JEDIDAH – Mother of Josiah, King of Judah; daughter of Adaiah. of Boscath, and wife of Amon (II Kings xxi. 26, xxii. 1). The name means "beloved."E. G. H. I. M. P.
JEDIDIAH (GOTTLIEB) BEN ABRAHAM ISRAEL – Galician preacher and Masorite; lived at Lemberg in the seventeenth century. He wrote: "Ahabat ha-Shem," fifty haggadic expositions on Deut. x. 12 (Cracow, 1641; Lublin, 1645); "Shir Yedidut," commentary on the Masorah, in four...
JEDIDIAH BEN MOSES OF RECANATI – Italian scholar; flourished in the second half of the sixteenth century. At the request of Immanuel di Fano, Jedidiah translated, in 1580, the "Moreh Nebukim" into Italian, under the title "Erudizione di Confusi." Parts of this...
JEDIDJA – See Heinemann, Jeremiah; Periodicals.