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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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SALVADOR, JOSEPH – English philanthropist; flourished about 1753. He came of a distinguished family that emigrated from Holland in the eighteenth century, bringing with it considerable sums of money which it invested in commerce. Salvador, who...
SALVATION – Etymological Meanings. The usual rendering in the English versions for the Hebrew words , , derivatives of the stem , which in the verb occurs only in the "nif'al" and "hif'il" forms. Other Hebrew terms translated by the...
SALZBURG – Austrian duchy (formerly a German archbishopric), and its capital of the same name. Jews, among them a physician, are mentioned in the Salzburg records as early as the ninth century. In the eleventh century there were in the...
SAMA B. RABBA – Babylonian amora; last head of the Pumbedita Academy. He was the successor of Raḥumai II., and officiated for about twenty years (456-476). He was a contemporary of Mar b. Ashi and of Rabba Tusfa'ah. Tradition relates that, in...
SAMA B. RAḲTA – Babylonian amora of the sixth generation. He was a contemporary of Rabina I., with whom he disputed concerning a halakah (Ḳid. 9a), and to whom he communicated a saying of Rab Awia (B. M. 10b, the correct reading in...
SAMAEL – Prince of the demons, and an important figure both in Talmudic and in post-Talmudic literature, where he appears as accuser, seducer, and destroyer. His name is etymologized as = "the venom of God," since he is identical with...
SAMARA – Babylonian river near which tradition has located Ezra's tomb. Many legends cluster round this sacred spot; and in former times both Jews and Mohammedans used to make pilgrimages thither for prayer and to procure relies. It was...
SAMARCAND – Town in Central Asia; chief town of the Zerafshan district of the Russian dominions. According to tradition, Samarcand was built by Emperor Kaikansu between 3000 and 4000 B.C. It was known as Maracanda in ancient times, was...
SAMARIA – The Name. City of Palestine; capital of the kingdom of Israel. It was built by Omri, in the seventh year of his reign, on the mountain Shomeron (Samaria); he had bought this mountain for two talents of silver from Shemer, after...
SAMARITANS – Properly, inhabitants of Samaria. The name is now restricted to a small tribe of people living in Nablus (Shechem) and calling themselves "Bene Yisrael," or sometimes . Their history as a distinct community begins with the...
SAMAU'IL IBN ADIYA – See Samuel ibn Adiya.
SAMBARI (CATTAWI?), JOSEPH BEN ISAAC – Egyptian chronicler of the seventeenth century; lived probably at Alexandria between 1640 and 1703. Of lowly origin and in the employ of Rabbi Joseph Ḥen, he spent his leisure time in historic studies, finding a mass of...