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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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SACHS, BERNHARD – American physician; born at Baltimore Jan. 2, 1858; educated at Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass., and at the universities of London, Berlin, Vienna, and Strasburg (M.D. 1882). In 1884 he settled in New York city, where since...
SACHS, JOHANN JACOB (JOSEPH ISIDOR) – German physician; born at Märkisch Friedland July 26, 1803; died at Nordhausen Jan. 11, 1846. Educated at the University of Königsberg (M.D. 1827), he established himself as a physician in Berlin. There he founded in 1832 the...
SACHS, JULIUS – American educator; born at Baltimore July 6, 1849; educated at Columbia University and Rostock (Ph.D. 1867). He founded the Collegiate Institute, New York, and is now(1905) also professor of secondary education in Teachers'...
SACHS, MICHAEL JEHIEL – German rabbi; born at Glogau Sept. 3, 1808; died in Berlin Jan. 31, 1864. He was educated in the University of Berlin, taking the degree of Ph.D. in 1836. In the same year he was called to Prague, where he officiated as preacher...
SACHS, SENIOR – Russo-French Hebrew scholar; born at Kaidany, government of Kovno, June 17, 1816; died at Paris Nov. 18, 1892. When Senior was only one and one-half year old his father, Ẓemaḥ Sachs, became rabbi of Zhagory, also in the...
SACHS, WILHELM – German dental surgeon; born at Wesenberg, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Sept. 22, 1849. He received his education at the University of Breslau and the Philadelphia Dental College, graduating as doctor of dental surgery in 1872. After...
SACKCLOTH – Term originally denoting a coarsely woven fabric, usually made of goat's hair. It afterward came to mean also a garment made from such cloth, which was chiefly worn as a token of mourning by the Israelites. It was furthermore a...
SACKHEIM, ABRAHAM BEN JOSEPH – Lithuanian scholar and Talmudist; died at Wilna June 26, 1872. He was well versed in rabbinics, as may be seen from his "Yad ha-Ḥazaḳah," a casuistic commentary on the Pesaḥ Haggadah (Wilna, 1835; the editor's name appears in...
SACKHEIM, TOBIAH B. ARYEH LÖB – Russian Talmudist and communal worker; died in Rosinoi, government of Grodno, at an advanced age, Jan. 28, 1822. He was a descendant in the sixth generation of Israel b. Shalom of that town, who suffered martyrdom on Rosh...
SACRIFICE – The act of offering to a deity for the purpose of doing homage, winning favor, or securing pardon; that which is offered or consecrated. The late generic term for "sacrifice" in Hebrew is , the verb being , used in connection...
SACRILEGE – The act of profaning or violating sacred things. The prohibition of sacrilege was primarily in connection with the sanctuary (Lev. xix. 8, xxi. 23). The services in the Tabernacle or Temple could not be relegated to any one...
SACUTO (ZAKUTO), MOSES B. MORDECAI – See Zacuto, Moses b. Mordecai.
SA'D AL-DAULAH – Jewish physician and statesman; grand vizier from 1289 to 1291 under the Mongolian ruler in Persia, Argun Khan; assassinated March 5, 1291; son of Hibbat Allah b. Muḥasib of Ebher (Hammer-Purgstall, "Gesch. der Ilchane," i. 382)...
ṢADAḲAH BEN ABU AL-FARAJ MUNAJJA – Samaritan physician and philosopher; died near Damascus 1223. He was the court physician of Al-Malik al-'Adil, the Ayyubid prince, who ruled at Damascus. Ṣadaḳah was the author of: "Sharh Fuṣul Buḳraṭ" a commentary on...
SADDUCEES – Name from High Priest Zadok. Name given to the party representing views and practises of the Law and interests of Temple and priesthood directly opposite to those of the Pharisees. The singular form, "Ẓadduḳi" (Greek,...
SAFED – City of Upper Galilee (it has no connection with the Zephath of Judges i. 17). Its foundation dates from the second century of the common era (Yer. R. H. 58a). There is no further mention of the town for many centuries. In 1289...
SAGERIN – Leader of the women in public prayer. The separation of the sexes at Jewish worship was insisted on even in the days of the Temple (Suk. 51b); but women were by tradition recognized as entitled to appoint a prayer-leader from...
SAHAGUN (SANT FAGUND) – City in the old Spanish kingdom of Leon. On March 5, 1152, King Alfonso VII. granted to the thirty Jewish families living there the same privileges which the Jews in the city of Leon had received from Alfonso VI. (Becerro, "Ms....
SAHL – Physician, astrologer, and mathematician of the ninth century (c. 786-845 ?); father of the physician Ali ben Sahl. Sahl translated the "Almagest" of Ptolemy. Steinschneider identifies him with the celebrated Sahl ibn Bishr...
SAHL BEN MAẒLIAḤ HA-KOHEN AL-MU'ALLIM ABU AL-SARI – Karaite philosopher and writer; born at Jerusalem 910. He belonged to the Rechabites, and was one of the apostles of the Karaites who traveled extensively to win new adherents for Karaism and thereby strengthen the failing faith...
SAHULAH, ISAAC BEN SOLOMON IBN ABI – Spanish scholar and Hebrew poet of the thirteenth century; born, as some believe, at Guadalajara in 1244. Geiger, in "Melo Chofnajim," German part,p. 62, gives the name as Segullah. According to Abraham Zacuto ("Yuḥasin," ed....
SA'ID BEN ḤASAN OF ALEXANDRIA – Jewish convert to Islam; lived in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. He was the author of an apologetic work entitled "Masalik al-Nazar fi Nubuwwat Sayyid al-Bashar." The author intended to demonstrate from Holy Scripture...
SAILORS – See Navigation.
SAINT AND SAINTLINESS – In Jewish tradition saintliness ("ḥasidut") is distinguished from holiness ("ḳedushah"), which is part of the Mosaic law. Saintliness is a divine and lofty type of piety, and a higher morality, not bound by law. Saintliness is...
SAINT CROIX – See West Indies, Danish.